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中华人民共和国民法典 物权编(中英对照)
2020-07-06

第二编 物权

Book Two Real Rights

第一分编 通则

Title One General Provisions

第一章 一般规定

Chapter I General Rules

  第二百零五条 本编调整因物的归属和利用产生的民事关系。

Article 205 This Book regulates civil relations arising from the attribution and use of property.

  第二百零六条 国家坚持和完善公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展,按劳分配为主体、多种分配方式并存,社会主义市场经济体制等社会主义基本经济制度。

Article 206 The state upholds and improves the co-development of multiple forms of ownership with public ownership playing a dominant role, the co-existence of multiple modes of distribution with distribution according to the amount of labor performed playing a dominant role, the system of socialist market economy, and other basic socialist economic regimes.

国家巩固和发展公有制经济,鼓励、支持和引导非公有制经济的发展。

The state consolidates and develops the public sector of the economy, and encourages, supports, and guides the development of the non-public sectors of the economy.

国家实行社会主义市场经济,保障一切市场主体的平等法律地位和发展权利。

The state implements the socialist market economy, and safeguards the equal legal status and development rights of all market players.

  第二百零七条 国家、集体、私人的物权和其他权利人的物权受法律平等保护,任何组织或者个人不得侵犯。

Article 207 The real rights of the state, collectives, individuals, and other right holders shall be equally protected by law, and shall not be infringed upon by any organization or individual.

  第二百零八条 不动产物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭,应当依照法律规定登记。动产物权的设立和转让,应当依照法律规定交付。

Article 208 The creation, modification, transfer, or extinction of a real right in an immovable shall be registered in accordance with the provisions of laws. A real right in a movable shall be created or transferred upon delivery in accordance with the provisions of laws.

第二章 物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭

Chapter II Creation, Modification, Transfer and Extinction of Real Rights

第一节 不动产登记

Section 1 Registration of Immovables

  第二百零九条 不动产物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭,经依法登记,发生效力;未经登记,不发生效力,但是法律另有规定的除外。

Article 209 The creation, modification, transfer, or extinction of a real right in an immovable shall become valid after it is registered in accordance with the law; it shall have no binding force if it is not registered in accordance with the law, except as otherwise provided for by any law.

依法属于国家所有的自然资源,所有权可以不登记。

The ownership of natural resources belonging to the state in accordance with the law is not required to be registered.

  第二百一十条 不动产登记,由不动产所在地的登记机构办理。

Article 210 An immovable shall be registered at the registration authority at the place where the immovable is located.

国家对不动产实行统一登记制度。统一登记的范围、登记机构和登记办法,由法律、行政法规规定。

The state implements the rules for the unified registration of immovables. The scope of unified registration, registration authorities and the measures for registration shall be provided for by laws and administrative regulations.

  第二百一十一条 当事人申请登记,应当根据不同登记事项提供权属证明和不动产界址、面积等必要材料。

Article 211 A party that applies for the registration of an immovable shall, based on different registration items, provide the certificate of ownership of the immovable and required materials such as those on the boundary and area of the immovable.

  第二百一十二条 登记机构应当履行下列职责:

Article 212 The registration authority shall perform the following duties:

(一)查验申请人提供的权属证明和其他必要材料;

(1) Examining the certificate of ownership and other required materials provided by the applicant.

(二)就有关登记事项询问申请人;

(2) Inquiring the applicant about the relevant registration items.

(三)如实、及时登记有关事项;

(3) Registering the relevant items based on facts and in a timely manner.

(四)法律、行政法规规定的其他职责。

(4) Performing other duties provided for by laws and administrative regulations.

申请登记的不动产的有关情况需要进一步证明的,登记机构可以要求申请人补充材料,必要时可以实地查看。

Where it is necessary to further prove the relevant situation of the immovable involved in the application for registration, the registration authority may require the applicant to submit additional materials, and may conduct on-site inspection when necessary.

  第二百一十三条 登记机构不得有下列行为:

Article 213 The registration authority may not commit any of the following conduct:

(一)要求对不动产进行评估;

(1) Requiring the assessment of the immovable.

(二)以年检等名义进行重复登记;

(2) Conducting repeated registration in the name of annual inspection, among others.

(三)超出登记职责范围的其他行为。

(3) Any other conduct beyond the scope of registration duties.

  第二百一十四条 不动产物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭,依照法律规定应当登记的,自记载于不动产登记簿时发生效力。

Article 214 The creation, modification, transfer, or extinction of the real right in an immovable shall, if it shall be registered in accordance with the provisions of laws, become valid from the time when it is recorded in the register of immovables.

  第二百一十五条 当事人之间订立有关设立、变更、转让和消灭不动产物权的合同,除法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定外,自合同成立时生效;未办理物权登记的,不影响合同效力。

Article 215 A contract entered into by the parties on the creation, modification, transfer, or extinction of the real right in an immovable shall become valid from the date when the contract is entered into, unless it is otherwise provided for by any law or agreed upon by the parties; and if the real right has not been registered, it shall not affect the validity of the contract.

  第二百一十六条 不动产登记簿是物权归属和内容的根据。

Article 216 The register of immovables is the basis for determining the attribution and content of a real right.

不动产登记簿由登记机构管理。

The register of immovables shall be managed by the registration authority.

  第二百一十七条 不动产权属证书是权利人享有该不动产物权的证明。不动产权属证书记载的事项,应当与不动产登记簿一致;记载不一致的,除有证据证明不动产登记簿确有错误外,以不动产登记簿为准。

Article 217 The certificate of ownership of an immovable is the certificate proving that the right holder is entitled to the real right in the immovable. The items recorded in the certificate of ownership of the immovable shall be consistent with those recorded in the register of immovables; in the case of any discrepancy, the item recorded in the register of immovables shall prevail, except that there is any evidence to prove that there is any error in the item.

  第二百一十八条 权利人、利害关系人可以申请查询、复制不动产登记资料,登记机构应当提供。

Article 218 The right holder or the interested party may apply for consulting or duplicating immovable registration materials, and the registration authority shall provide such materials.

  第二百一十九条 利害关系人不得公开、非法使用权利人的不动产登记资料。

Article 219 The parties of interest shall not make public or illegally use the right holder's immovable registration materials.

  第二百二十条 权利人、利害关系人认为不动产登记簿记载的事项错误的,可以申请更正登记。不动产登记簿记载的权利人书面同意更正或者有证据证明登记确有错误的,登记机构应当予以更正。

Article 220 The right holder or the interested party may apply for correction registration if it or he is of the opinion that there is any error in the item recorded in the register of immovables. If the right holder recorded in the register of immovables agrees to correction in a written form or has evidence to prove that there is any error in the registration item, the registration authority shall make correction.

不动产登记簿记载的权利人不同意更正的,利害关系人可以申请异议登记。登记机构予以异议登记,申请人自异议登记之日起十五日内不提起诉讼的,异议登记失效。异议登记不当,造成权利人损害的,权利人可以向申请人请求损害赔偿。

Where the right holder recorded in the register of immovables disagrees to the correction, the interested party may apply for opposition registration. If the registration authority grants the opposition registration, but the applicant fails to institute an action within 15 days from the date of opposition registration, the opposition registration shall cease to be effective. If the opposition registration is inappropriate and causes any damage to the right holder, the right holder may claim compensation for damages from the applicant.

  第二百二十一条 当事人签订买卖房屋的协议或者签订其他不动产物权的协议,为保障将来实现物权,按照约定可以向登记机构申请预告登记。预告登记后,未经预告登记的权利人同意,处分该不动产的,不发生物权效力。

Article 221 Where a party enters into a property purchase agreement or an agreement on a real right in any other immovable, the party may, as agreed upon, apply to the registration authority for advance notice registration so as to guarantee the exercise of the real right in the future. After the advance notice registration, any disposal of the immovable without the consent of the right holder recorded in the advance notice registration shall produce no effect of real right.

预告登记后,债权消灭或者自能够进行不动产登记之日起九十日内未申请登记的,预告登记失效。

Where, after the advance notice registration, the creditor's right is extinguished or no application for the registration of the immovable is filed within 90 days from the date when the immovable can be registered, the advance notice registration shall cease to be effective.

  第二百二十二条 当事人提供虚假材料申请登记,造成他人损害的,应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 222 Any party that provides false application materials for registration, thus causing any damage to another person, shall assume compensatory liability.

因登记错误,造成他人损害的,登记机构应当承担赔偿责任。登记机构赔偿后,可以向造成登记错误的人追偿。

Where the registration authority causes any damage to another person due to any error in registration, it shall assume compensatory liability. After making the compensation, the registration authority may recover the amount from the person causing the error in registration.

  第二百二十三条 不动产登记费按件收取,不得按照不动产的面积、体积或者价款的比例收取。

Article 223 Immovable registration fees shall be collected on each piece, and may not be collected on the basis of the area or size of the immovable or in proportion to the price.

第二节 动产交付

Section 2 Delivery of Movables

  第二百二十四条 动产物权的设立和转让,自交付时发生效力,但是法律另有规定的除外。

Article 224 The creation or transfer of the real right in a movable shall become valid upon delivery, except as otherwise provided for by any law.

  第二百二十五条 船舶、航空器和机动车等的物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭,未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。

Article 225 The creation, modification, transfer, or extinction of the real right in a vessel, aircraft, or motor vehicle, among others, if it is not registered, shall not be set up against a bona fide third party.

  第二百二十六条 动产物权设立和转让前,权利人已经占有该动产的,物权自民事法律行为生效时发生效力。

Article 226 Where the right holder has possessed a movable before the real right in the movable is created or transferred, the real right shall have binding force when the juridical act becomes valid.

  第二百二十七条 动产物权设立和转让前,第三人占有该动产的,负有交付义务的人可以通过转让请求第三人返还原物的权利代替交付。

Article 227 Where a third party has possessed a movable before the real right in the movable is created or transferred, the person who is obliged to deliver the movable may transfer the right to request a third party to return the original property to replace the delivery.

  第二百二十八条 动产物权转让时,当事人又约定由出让人继续占有该动产的,物权自该约定生效时发生效力。

Article 228 Where it is agreed upon by the parties that the transferor continues to possess the movable when the real right in the movable is transferred, the real right shall have binding force from the time when the agreement becomes valid.

第三节 其他规定

Section 3 Other Provisions

  第二百二十九条 因人民法院、仲裁机构的法律文书或者人民政府的征收决定等,导致物权设立、变更、转让或者消灭的,自法律文书或者征收决定等生效时发生效力。

Article 229 Where a real right is created, modified, transferred, or extinguished in accordance with the legal document of a people's court or an arbitration institution or an expropriation decision made by a people's government, among others, it shall have binding force from the time when the legal document or expropriation decision, among others, becomes valid.

  第二百三十条 因继承取得物权的,自继承开始时发生效力。

Article 230 Where a real right is acquired through succession, it shall have binding force from the time of succession.

  第二百三十一条 因合法建造、拆除房屋等事实行为设立或者消灭物权的,自事实行为成就时发生效力。

Article 231 Where a real right is created or extinguished due to such factual behavior as lawful construction and demolition of buildings, it shall have binding force at the time when the factual behavior is committed.

  第二百三十二条 处分依照本节规定享有的不动产物权,依照法律规定需要办理登记的,未经登记,不发生物权效力。

Article 232 Any disposal of the real right in an immovable enjoyed in accordance with the provisions of this Section shall produce no effect of real right if it is not registered as required by laws.

第三章 物权的保护

Chapter III Protection of Real Rights

  第二百三十三条 物权受到侵害的,权利人可以通过和解、调解、仲裁、诉讼等途径解决。

Article 233 Where a real right is infringed upon, the right holder may have the matter settled by such means as conciliation, mediation, arbitration, and litigation.

  第二百三十四条 因物权的归属、内容发生争议的,利害关系人可以请求确认权利。

Article 234 Where any dispute arises over the attribution or content of a real right, the interested parties may file a claim for confirmation of the right.

  第二百三十五条 无权占有不动产或者动产的,权利人可以请求返还原物。

Article 235 With respect of the untitled possession of an immovable or movable, the right holder may file a claim for return of the original property.

  第二百三十六条 妨害物权或者可能妨害物权的,权利人可以请求排除妨害或者消除危险。

Article 236 Where a real right has been or may be interfered with, the right holder may file a claim for removal of interference or elimination of danger.

  第二百三十七条 造成不动产或者动产毁损的,权利人可以依法请求修理、重作、更换或者恢复原状。

Article 237 Where an immovable or movable is damaged, the right holder may file a claim for repair, rebuilding, replacement, or restoration to the original condition, in accordance with the law.

  第二百三十八条 侵害物权,造成权利人损害的,权利人可以依法请求损害赔偿,也可以依法请求承担其他民事责任。

Article 238 Where the infringement upon a real right causes any damage to the right holder, the right holder may file a claim for damages in accordance with the law, and may also file a claim for assumption of any other civil liability in accordance with the law.

  第二百三十九条 本章规定的物权保护方式,可以单独适用,也可以根据权利被侵害的情形合并适用。

Article 239 The ways for the protection of a real right as provided for in this Chapter may be applied either separately or jointly, depending on the circumstance of the infringement upon the real right.

第二分编 所有权

Title Two Ownership

第四章 一般规定

Chapter IV General Rules

  第二百四十条 所有权人对自己的不动产或者动产,依法享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。

Article 240 The owner of an immovable or movable has the right to possess, use, enjoy, and dispose of such an immovable or movable in accordance with the law.

  第二百四十一条 所有权人有权在自己的不动产或者动产上设立用益物权和担保物权。用益物权人、担保物权人行使权利,不得损害所有权人的权益。

Article 241 The owner of an immovable or movable has the right to create usufructs and security interests on the immovable or movable. In exercising rights, the usufructuary or security interest holder may not damage the owner's rights and interests.

  第二百四十二条 法律规定专属于国家所有的不动产和动产,任何组织或者个人不能取得所有权。

Article 242 No organization or individual may acquire the ownership of an immovable or movable exclusively owned by the state as provided for by laws.

  第二百四十三条 为了公共利益的需要,依照法律规定的权限和程序可以征收集体所有的土地和组织、个人的房屋以及其他不动产。

Article 243 Land owned by collectives and buildings and other immovables of organizations or individuals may be expropriated in the interest of the public within the limits of power and under the procedures provided for by laws.

征收集体所有的土地,应当依法及时足额支付土地补偿费、安置补助费以及农村村民住宅、其他地上附着物和青苗等的补偿费用,并安排被征地农民的社会保障费用,保障被征地农民的生活,维护被征地农民的合法权益。

Where land owned by collectives is expropriated, land compensation, resettlement subsidies, and compensation for rural villagers' houses, other fixtures on land, and young crops, among others, shall be paid in full amount in accordance with law, and social security expenses for the farmers whose land is expropriated shall be arranged for, in order to guarantee the farmers' daily lives and safeguard their lawful rights and interests.

征收组织、个人的房屋以及其他不动产,应当依法给予征收补偿,维护被征收人的合法权益;征收个人住宅的,还应当保障被征收人的居住条件。

Where the buildings and other immovables of organizations or individuals are expropriated, indemnities for expropriation shall be given in accordance with the law, and the lawful rights and interests of the person whose land is expropriated shall be protected; and if the housing of individuals is expropriated, each individual's residential conditions shall also be guaranteed.

任何组织或者个人不得贪污、挪用、私分、截留、拖欠征收补偿费等费用。

No organization or individual may embezzle, misappropriate, privately divide, withhold, or default on the payment of indemnities for expropriation and other expenses.

  第二百四十四条 国家对耕地实行特殊保护,严格限制农用地转为建设用地,控制建设用地总量。不得违反法律规定的权限和程序征收集体所有的土地。

Article 244 The state provides special protection for arable land, strictly restricts the repurposing of farmland as land for construction, and controls the total amount of land for construction. No land owned by the collective may be expropriated beyond the limits of power or in violation of the procedures provided for by any law.

  第二百四十五条 因抢险救灾、疫情防控等紧急需要,依照法律规定的权限和程序可以征用组织、个人的不动产或者动产。被征用的不动产或者动产使用后,应当返还被征用人。组织、个人的不动产或者动产被征用或者征用后毁损、灭失的,应当给予补偿。

Article 245 In order to meet such urgent needs as emergency rescue, disaster relief, and epidemic containment, the immovable or movable of an organization or individual may be requisitioned within the limits of power under the procedures as provided for by laws. After use, the requisitioned immovable or movable shall be returned to the organization or individual of which/whom the immovable or movable is requisitioned. If the immovable or movable of the organization or individual is requisitioned, or if it is damaged or lost after the requisition thereof, an indemnity shall be given.

第五章 国家所有权和集体所有权、私人所有权

Chapter V State Ownership, Collective Ownership and Private Ownership

  第二百四十六条 法律规定属于国家所有的财产,属于国家所有即全民所有。

Article 246 The property owned by the state as provided for by laws belong to the state, that is, the whole people.

国有财产由国务院代表国家行使所有权。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。

The State Council exercises the ownership of state-owned property on behalf of the state, except as otherwise provided for by any law.

  第二百四十七条 矿藏、水流、海域属于国家所有。

Article 247 All mineral resources, waters and sea areas belong to the state.

  第二百四十八条 无居民海岛属于国家所有,国务院代表国家行使无居民海岛所有权。

Article 248 Uninhabited sea islands belong to the state, and the State Council exercises the ownership of uninhabited sea islands on behalf of the state.

  第二百四十九条 城市的土地,属于国家所有。法律规定属于国家所有的农村和城市郊区的土地,属于国家所有。

Article 249 Urban land belongs to the state. Land in rural areas and suburban areas owned by the state as provided for by laws belongs to the state.

  第二百五十条 森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂等自然资源,属于国家所有,但是法律规定属于集体所有的除外。

Article 250 Natural resources such as forests, mountains, grassland, waste land, and intertidal zones belong to the state, except that they are owned collectively as provided for by laws.

  第二百五十一条 法律规定属于国家所有的野生动植物资源,属于国家所有。

Article 251 The wildlife resources owned by the state as provided for by laws belong to the state.

  第二百五十二条 无线电频谱资源属于国家所有。

Article 252 Radio-frequency spectrum resources belong to the state.

  第二百五十三条 法律规定属于国家所有的文物,属于国家所有。

Article 253 The cultural relics owned by the state as provided for by laws belong to the state.

  第二百五十四条 国防资产属于国家所有。

Article 254 Assets for national defense belong to the state.

铁路、公路、电力设施、电信设施和油气管道等基础设施,依照法律规定为国家所有的,属于国家所有。

Infrastructures such as railways, highways, electric power facilities, telecommunications facilities, and oil and gas pipelines that are owned by the state as provided for by laws belong to the state.

  第二百五十五条 国家机关对其直接支配的不动产和动产,享有占有、使用以及依照法律和国务院的有关规定处分的权利。

Article 255 State organs are entitled to possess and use the immovables and movables directly under their control and to dispose of them in accordance with laws and the relevant provisions issued by the State Council.

  第二百五十六条 国家举办的事业单位对其直接支配的不动产和动产,享有占有、使用以及依照法律和国务院的有关规定收益、处分的权利。

Article 256 The public institutions sponsored by the state are entitled to possess and use the immovables and movables directly under their control and to enjoy and dispose of them in accordance with laws and the relevant provisions issued by the State Council.

  第二百五十七条 国家出资的企业,由国务院、地方人民政府依照法律、行政法规规定分别代表国家履行出资人职责,享有出资人权益。

Article 257 With respect to the enterprises invested by the state, the State Council and local people's governments shall, in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations, perform the duties of investors on behalf of the state, and enjoy the rights and interests of investors.

  第二百五十八条 国家所有的财产受法律保护,禁止任何组织或者个人侵占、哄抢、私分、截留、破坏。

Article 258 The property owned by the state shall be protected by law, and no organization or individual may embezzle, loot, privately divide, withhold, or destroy them.

  第二百五十九条 履行国有财产管理、监督职责的机构及其工作人员,应当依法加强对国有财产的管理、监督,促进国有财产保值增值,防止国有财产损失;滥用职权,玩忽职守,造成国有财产损失的,应当依法承担法律责任。

Article 259 The institutions performing the duties of administration and supervision of state-owned property and their staff members shall, in accordance with the law, strengthen the administration and supervision of state-owned property, promote the value preservation and increment of state-owned property, and prevent the loss of state-owned property; and whoever abuses power or neglects duty, causing any loss of state-owned property, shall assume legal liability in accordance with the law.

违反国有财产管理规定,在企业改制、合并分立、关联交易等过程中,低价转让、合谋私分、擅自担保或者以其他方式造成国有财产损失的,应当依法承担法律责任。

Whoever, in violation of the provisions on the management of state-owned property, causes any loss of state-owned property by transferring it at a low price, privately dividing it in collusion with others, using it as security without approval or by other means in the course of enterprise restructuring, business combination or division, or affiliated transaction, among others, shall assume legal liability in accordance with the law.

  第二百六十条 集体所有的不动产和动产包括:

Article 260 The immovables and movables owned by a collective include:

(一)法律规定属于集体所有的土地和森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂;

(1) land, forests, mountains, grassland, waste land and intertidal zones owned by the collective as provided for by laws;

(二)集体所有的建筑物、生产设施、农田水利设施;

(2) buildings, production facilities, and water conservancy facilities of farmland that are owned by the collective;

(三)集体所有的教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育等设施;

(3) educational, scientific, cultural, public health, sports, and other facilities that are owned by the collective; and

(四)集体所有的其他不动产和动产。

(4) other immovables and movables owned by the collective.

  第二百六十一条 农民集体所有的不动产和动产,属于本集体成员集体所有。

Article 261 The immovables and movables owned by a farmers' collective belong to all the members of the collective.

下列事项应当依照法定程序经本集体成员决定:

The following matters shall be subject to decision-making by the members of the collective under statutory procedures:

(一)土地承包方案以及将土地发包给本集体以外的组织或者个人承包;

(1) Land contracting plan, and offering land to organizations or individuals for agricultural operations other than those belonging to the collective.

(二)个别土地承包经营权人之间承包地的调整;

(2) Adjustment of the contracted land among the holders of a conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations.

(三)土地补偿费等费用的使用、分配办法;

(3) Measures for the use and distribution of land compensation and other expenses.

(四)集体出资的企业的所有权变动等事项;

(4) Such matters as change in the ownership of any enterprise invested by the collective.

(五)法律规定的其他事项。

(5) Other matters provided for by laws.

  第二百六十二条 对于集体所有的土地和森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂等,依照下列规定行使所有权:

Article 262 The ownership of collectively-owned land, forest, mountain, grassland, waste land or intertidal zone, among others, shall be exercised in accordance with the following provisions:

(一)属于村农民集体所有的,由村集体经济组织或者村民委员会依法代表集体行使所有权;

(1) If it is owned by a farmers' collective of a village, the ownership shall be exercised by a collective economic organization or the villagers' committee of the village on behalf of the collective in accordance with the law.

(二)分别属于村内两个以上农民集体所有的,由村内各该集体经济组织或者村民小组依法代表集体行使所有权;

(2) If it is owned by two or more farmers' collectives of a village, the ownership shall be exercised by all the collective economic organizations or the villagers' groups of the village on behalf of the collective in accordance with the law.

(三)属于乡镇农民集体所有的,由乡镇集体经济组织代表集体行使所有权。

(3) If it is owned by a farmers' collective of a township or town, the ownership shall be exercised by a collective economic organization of the township or town on behalf of the collective.

  第二百六十三条 城镇集体所有的不动产和动产,依照法律、行政法规的规定由本集体享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。

Article 263 An urban collective has the right to possess, use, enjoy, and dispose of any immovable or movable owned by it in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations.

  第二百六十四条 农村集体经济组织或者村民委员会、村民小组应当依照法律、行政法规以及章程、村规民约向本集体成员公布集体财产的状况。集体成员有权查阅、复制相关资料。

Article 264 A rural collective economic organization, villager's committee or villagers' group shall publicize the status of the property owned by the collective to the members of the collective in accordance with laws, administrative regulations, its articles of association, village rules and villagers' agreements. Members of the collective have the right to consult and duplicate the relevant materials.

  第二百六十五条 集体所有的财产受法律保护,禁止任何组织或者个人侵占、哄抢、私分、破坏。

Article 265 The property owned by a collective shall be protected by law, and no organization or individual may encroach upon, loot, privately divide, or destroy such property.

农村集体经济组织、村民委员会或者其负责人作出的决定侵害集体成员合法权益的,受侵害的集体成员可以请求人民法院予以撤销。

Where a decision made by a rural collective economic organization, or a villagers' committee or by the person in charge thereof infringes upon the lawful rights and interests of any member of the collective, such a member may request the people's court to revoke such a decision.

  第二百六十六条 私人对其合法的收入、房屋、生活用品、生产工具、原材料等不动产和动产享有所有权。

Article 266 An individual shall have the ownership of his or her lawfully earned income, buildings, articles for daily use, means of production, raw materials, and other immovables and movables.

  第二百六十七条 私人的合法财产受法律保护,禁止任何组织或者个人侵占、哄抢、破坏。

Article 267 An individual's lawful property shall be protected by law, and no organization or individual may encroach upon, loot, or destroy it.

  第二百六十八条 国家、集体和私人依法可以出资设立有限责任公司、股份有限公司或者其他企业。国家、集体和私人所有的不动产或者动产投到企业的,由出资人按照约定或者出资比例享有资产收益、重大决策以及选择经营管理者等权利并履行义务。

Article 268 The state, any collective or individual may, in accordance with the law, make investment to form a limited liability company, a joint stock company, or any other enterprise. If the immovable or movable owned by the state, the collective or an individual is invested in an enterprise, the investor shall enjoy such rights as obtaining asset returns, making major decisions and selecting business managers, and shall perform duties as agreed upon or in proportion to the amount of investment.

  第二百六十九条 营利法人对其不动产和动产依照法律、行政法规以及章程享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。

Article 269 A for-profit legal person has the right to possess, use, enjoy, and dispose of its immovables and movables in accordance with laws and administrative regulations as well as its bylaws.

营利法人以外的法人,对其不动产和动产的权利,适用有关法律、行政法规以及章程的规定。

The rights enjoyed by a legal person other than for-profit legal persons over its immovables and movables shall be governed by the provisions of relevant laws and administrative regulations as well as its bylaws.

  第二百七十条 社会团体法人、捐助法人依法所有的不动产和动产,受法律保护。

Article 270 The immovables and movables legally owned by social organization legal persons and legal persons making donations shall be protected by law.

第六章 业主的建筑物区分所有权

Chapter VI Owners' Separate Ownership in a Building

  第二百七十一条 业主对建筑物内的住宅、经营性用房等专有部分享有所有权,对专有部分以外的共有部分享有共有和共同管理的权利。

Article 271 The owners have the ownership of private portions within a building, such as housing units and commercial units, and have the right to co-own and jointly manage the common portions other than the private portions.

  第二百七十二条 业主对其建筑物专有部分享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。业主行使权利不得危及建筑物的安全,不得损害其他业主的合法权益。

Article 272 The owners have the right to possess, use, enjoy, and dispose of the private portions of a building. No owner may, in exercising rights, endanger the safety of the building or infringe upon the lawful rights and interests of any other owner.

  第二百七十三条 业主对建筑物专有部分以外的共有部分,享有权利,承担义务;不得以放弃权利为由不履行义务。

Article 273 An owner shall enjoy the rights and fulfill the obligations over the common portions other than the private portions of a building, and may not refuse to fulfill the obligations on the excuse of waiver of rights.

业主转让建筑物内的住宅、经营性用房,其对共有部分享有的共有和共同管理的权利一并转让。

When an owner transfers its housing unit or commercial unit within a building, the owner's right to co-own and jointly manage the common portions shall be transferred along with it.

  第二百七十四条 建筑区划内的道路,属于业主共有,但是属于城镇公共道路的除外。建筑区划内的绿地,属于业主共有,但是属于城镇公共绿地或者明示属于个人的除外。建筑区划内的其他公共场所、公用设施和物业服务用房,属于业主共有。

Article 274 The roads within the zoning lot shall be co-owned by owners, except those belonging in the public roads of a city or town. The green spaces within the zoning lot shall be co-owned by owners, except those belonging in the public green spaces of a city or town or, as it is clearly indicated, belonging to individuals. Other public spaces, public facilities and buildings used for property management services within the zoning lot shall be co-owned by owners.

  第二百七十五条 建筑区划内,规划用于停放汽车的车位、车库的归属,由当事人通过出售、附赠或者出租等方式约定。

Article 275 In the zoning lot, the attribution of the planned parking spaces and garages shall be agreed upon by the parties by such means as sale, additional gift, and lease.

占用业主共有的道路或者其他场地用于停放汽车的车位,属于业主共有。

The roads or other spaces co-owned by the owners, which are used for parking vehicles, shall belong to all the owners.

  第二百七十六条 建筑区划内,规划用于停放汽车的车位、车库应当首先满足业主的需要。

Article 276 In the zoning lot, the planned parking spaces and garages shall first be used to meet the needs of the owners.

  第二百七十七条 业主可以设立业主大会,选举业主委员会。业主大会、业主委员会成立的具体条件和程序,依照法律、法规的规定。

Article 277 The owners may establish an owners' assembly to elect an owners' committee. The specific conditions and procedures for the establishment of the owners' assembly and owners' committee shall be governed by the provisions of laws and regulations.

地方人民政府有关部门、居民委员会应当对设立业主大会和选举业主委员会给予指导和协助。

The relevant departments of local people's governments and neighborhood committees shall provide guidance and assistance for the establishment of the owners' assembly and the election of the owners' committee.

  第二百七十八条 下列事项由业主共同决定:

Article 278 The following matters shall be decided on by all the owners:

(一)制定和修改业主大会议事规则;

(1) Developing and amending the rules of procedures of the owners' assembly.

(二)制定和修改管理规约;

(2) Developing and amending management rules and agreements.

(三)选举业主委员会或者更换业主委员会成员;

(3) Electing the owners' committee or replacing members of the owners' committee.

(四)选聘和解聘物业服务企业或者其他管理人;

(4) Selecting or dismissing the property management service enterprise or any other manager.

(五)使用建筑物及其附属设施的维修资金;

(5) Using funds for the maintenance of a building and its ancillary facilities.

(六)筹集建筑物及其附属设施的维修资金;

(6) Raising funds for the maintenance of a building and its ancillary facilities.

(七)改建、重建建筑物及其附属设施;

(7) Transforming and reconstructing a building and its ancillary facilities.

(八)改变共有部分的用途或者利用共有部分从事经营活动;

(8) Changing the use of common portions or using common portions to conduct business activities.

(九)有关共有和共同管理权利的其他重大事项。

(7) Other major matters relating to co-ownership and joint management rights.

业主共同决定事项,应当由专有部分面积占比三分之二以上的业主且人数占比三分之二以上的业主参与表决。决定前款第六项至第八项规定的事项,应当经参与表决专有部分面积四分之三以上的业主且参与表决人数四分之三以上的业主同意。决定前款其他事项,应当经参与表决专有部分面积过半数的业主且参与表决人数过半数的业主同意。

The matters to be decided on by all the owners shall be voted on by two-thirds or more of all the owners, provided that the area of private portions owned by such owners accounts for two-thirds or more of the total area. The decisions on the matters set out in subparagraphs (6) through (8) of the preceding paragraph shall be subject to the consent of three quarters or more of the owners participating in the voting, provided that the area of private portions owned by such owners accounts for three quarters or more of the total area. The decisions on other matters set out in the preceding paragraph shall be subject to the consent of over a half of the owners participating in the voting, provided that the area of private portions owned by such owners accounts for over a half of the total area.

  第二百七十九条 业主不得违反法律、法规以及管理规约,将住宅改变为经营性用房。业主将住宅改变为经营性用房的,除遵守法律、法规以及管理规约外,应当经有利害关系的业主一致同意。

Article 279 No owner may change a housing unit into a commercial unit in violation of any law, regulation or management rule or agreement. If an owner intends to change a housing unit into a commercial unit, the owner shall, in addition to observing laws, regulations and management rules and agreements, obtain the consensus of the owners that have an interest in the change.

  第二百八十条 业主大会或者业主委员会的决定,对业主具有法律约束力。

Article 280 The decisions made by an owners' assembly or an owners' committee are legally binding upon all the owners.

业主大会或者业主委员会作出的决定侵害业主合法权益的,受侵害的业主可以请求人民法院予以撤销。

Where any decision made by the owners' assembly or the owners' committee infringes upon the lawful rights and interests of any owner, such an owner may request a people's court to revoke the decision.

  第二百八十一条 建筑物及其附属设施的维修资金,属于业主共有。经业主共同决定,可以用于电梯、屋顶、外墙、无障碍设施等共有部分的维修、更新和改造。建筑物及其附属设施的维修资金的筹集、使用情况应当定期公布。

Article 281 The funds for the maintenance of a building and its ancillary facilities are co-owned by owners, which, upon their common decision, may be used for maintaining, renovating and reconstructing the common portions such as elevators, roofs, outer walls, and barrier-free facilities. The information on the raising and use of funds for the maintenance of a building and its ancillary facilities shall be published on a periodical basis.

紧急情况下需要维修建筑物及其附属设施的,业主大会或者业主委员会可以依法申请使用建筑物及其附属设施的维修资金。

Where a building and its ancillary facilities need to be repaired in case of emergency, the owners' assembly or the owners' committee may apply for the use of funds for the maintenance of a building and its ancillary facilities in accordance with the law.

  第二百八十二条 建设单位、物业服务企业或者其他管理人等利用业主的共有部分产生的收入,在扣除合理成本之后,属于业主共有。

Article 282 The income derived from the use of common portions of the owners by the project owner, property management service enterprise or any other manager, among others, after the deduction of reasonable costs, shall belong to all the owners.

  第二百八十三条 建筑物及其附属设施的费用分摊、收益分配等事项,有约定的,按照约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,按照业主专有部分面积所占比例确定。

Article 283 Where there is an agreement on such matters as the apportioning of expenses for a building and its ancillary facilities and the distribution of proceeds therefrom, such an agreement shall prevail; in the absence of such an agreement or if such an agreement is ambiguous, such matters shall be determined based on the proportion of the area of the owners' private portions to the total area of the building.

  第二百八十四条 业主可以自行管理建筑物及其附属设施,也可以委托物业服务企业或者其他管理人管理。

Article 284 The owners may manage the building and its ancillary facilities by themselves, or entrust a property management service enterprise or any other manager to do so.

对建设单位聘请的物业服务企业或者其他管理人,业主有权依法更换。

The owners have the right to legally replace the property management service enterprise or any other manager retained by the project owner.

  第二百八十五条 物业服务企业或者其他管理人根据业主的委托,依照本法第三编有关物业服务合同的规定管理建筑区划内的建筑物及其附属设施,接受业主的监督,并及时答复业主对物业服务情况提出的询问。

Article 285 The property management service enterprise or any other manager shall, as authorized by the owners, manage the building and its ancillary facilities within the zoning lot according to the provisions of Book Three of this Code governing property management service contracts, accept the supervision from the owners, and give replies to the inquiries made by the owners on property management services in a timely manner.

物业服务企业或者其他管理人应当执行政府依法实施的应急处置措施和其他管理措施,积极配合开展相关工作。

The property management service enterprise or any other manager shall execute the emergency response measures and other management measures legally taken by the government, and actively cooperate in the relevant work.

  第二百八十六条 业主应当遵守法律、法规以及管理规约,相关行为应当符合节约资源、保护生态环境的要求。对于物业服务企业或者其他管理人执行政府依法实施的应急处置措施和其他管理措施,业主应当依法予以配合。

Article 286 The owners shall abide by laws, regulations and management rules and agreements, and their relevant acts shall comply with the requirements for the conservation of resources and the protection of ecology and environment. The owners shall, in accordance with the law, cooperate with the property management service enterprise or any other manager in the execution of emergency response measures and other management measures legally taken by the government.

业主大会或者业主委员会,对任意弃置垃圾、排放污染物或者噪声、违反规定饲养动物、违章搭建、侵占通道、拒付物业费等损害他人合法权益的行为,有权依照法律、法规以及管理规约,请求行为人停止侵害、排除妨碍、消除危险、恢复原状、赔偿损失。

With respect to any act that damages the lawful rights and interests of any other person, such as discarding wastes at will, discharging pollutants, making noises, feeding animals in violation of the relevant provisions, illegally building shelters, occupying passages, and refusing to pay property management fees, the owners' assembly or the owners' committee has the right to request the actor to cease the infringement, remove the obstacles, eliminate the danger, restore to the original conditions, and compensate for the losses in accordance with the relevant laws, regulations, and management rules and agreements.

业主或者其他行为人拒不履行相关义务的,有关当事人可以向有关行政主管部门报告或者投诉,有关行政主管部门应当依法处理。

Where the owner or any actor refuses to fulfill relevant obligations, the relevant party may file a report or complaint with the relevant administrative department, and the relevant administrative department shall handle it in accordance with the law.

  第二百八十七条 业主对建设单位、物业服务企业或者其他管理人以及其他业主侵害自己合法权益的行为,有权请求其承担民事责任。

Article 287 An owner whose lawful rights and interests are infringed upon by the project owner, a property management service enterprise, any other manager, or any other owner has the right to request the latter to assume civil liability.

第七章 相邻关系

Chapter VII Neighboring Relations

  第二百八十八条 不动产的相邻权利人应当按照有利生产、方便生活、团结互助、公平合理的原则,正确处理相邻关系。

Article 288 The right holders of neighboring immovables shall properly handle their neighboring relations under the principles of being conducive to production, convenience for daily life, unity and mutual assistance, and fairness and rationality.

  第二百八十九条 法律、法规对处理相邻关系有规定的,依照其规定;法律、法规没有规定的,可以按照当地习惯。

Article 289 Where the handling of neighboring relations is provided for any by law or regulation, the provisions thereof shall prevail; or if the law or regulation is silent, such relations may be handled according to local customs.

  第二百九十条 不动产权利人应当为相邻权利人用水、排水提供必要的便利。

Article 290 The right holder of an immovable shall provide necessary convenience for water use and drainage by the right holder of the neighboring immovable.

对自然流水的利用,应当在不动产的相邻权利人之间合理分配。对自然流水的排放,应当尊重自然流向。

Natural running water shall be rationally used by the right holders of neighboring immovables. The natural flow shall be observed with respect to the drainage of natural running water.

  第二百九十一条 不动产权利人对相邻权利人因通行等必须利用其土地的,应当提供必要的便利。

Article 291 The right holder of an immovable shall provide necessary convenience if the right holder of a neighboring immovable has to use the land thereof for passage or any other purpose.

  第二百九十二条 不动产权利人因建造、修缮建筑物以及铺设电线、电缆、水管、暖气和燃气管线等必须利用相邻土地、建筑物的,该土地、建筑物的权利人应当提供必要的便利。

Article 292 Where the right holder of an immovable has to use the neighboring land or building for constructing or maintaining a building, or laying wires, cables, water pipes, heating pipelines, or fuel gas pipelines, among others, the right holder of such land or building shall provide necessary convenience.

  第二百九十三条 建造建筑物,不得违反国家有关工程建设标准,不得妨碍相邻建筑物的通风、采光和日照。

Article 293 In the construction of a building, the relevant engineering construction standards of the state shall not be violated, and the ventilation, light and sunshine of the neighboring building shall not be interfered with.

  第二百九十四条 不动产权利人不得违反国家规定弃置固体废物,排放大气污染物、水污染物、土壤污染物、噪声、光辐射、电磁辐射等有害物质。

Article 294 The right holder of an immovable shall not, in violation of the provisions issued by the state, discard solid waste, discharge air, water, or soil pollutants, make noise, produce optical or electromagnetic radiation, or discharge other hazardous substances.

  第二百九十五条 不动产权利人挖掘土地、建造建筑物、铺设管线以及安装设备等,不得危及相邻不动产的安全。

Article 295 The right holder of an immovable shall not endanger the safety of the neighboring immovable when excavating land, constructing a building, laying pipelines, or installing equipment, among others.

  第二百九十六条 不动产权利人因用水、排水、通行、铺设管线等利用相邻不动产的,应当尽量避免对相邻的不动产权利人造成损害。

Article 296 Where the right holder of an immovable uses the neighboring immovable for water use, drainage, passage, laying pipelines, or any other purpose, the right holder shall do the best to avoid causing any damage to the right holder of the neighboring immovable.

第八章 共有

Chapter VIII Co-ownership

  第二百九十七条 不动产或者动产可以由两个以上组织、个人共有。共有包括按份共有和共同共有。

Article 297 Immovables or movables may be co-owned by two or more organizations or individuals. Co-ownership consists of divided co-ownership and undivided co-ownership.

  第二百九十八条 按份共有人对共有的不动产或者动产按照其份额享有所有权。

Article 298 Co-owners in divided co-ownership have the ownership of a co-owned immovable or movable in proportion to their shares.

  第二百九十九条 共同共有人对共有的不动产或者动产共同享有所有权。

Article 299 Co-owners in undivided co-ownership jointly enjoy the ownership of a co-owned immovable or movable.

  第三百条 共有人按照约定管理共有的不动产或者动产;没有约定或者约定不明确的,各共有人都有管理的权利和义务。

Article 300 Co-owners shall manage the co-owned immovable or movable as agreed upon; in the absence of such an agreement or if such an agreement is ambiguous, all co-owners have the management rights and obligations.

  第三百零一条 处分共有的不动产或者动产以及对共有的不动产或者动产作重大修缮、变更性质或者用途的,应当经占份额三分之二以上的按份共有人或者全体共同共有人同意,但是共有人之间另有约定的除外。

Article 301 The disposal or major repair, or modification of nature or use of a co-owned immovable or movable shall be subject to the consent of co-owners in divided co-ownership holding two-thirds or more of shares or all co-owners in undivided co-ownership, unless it is otherwise agreed upon by the co-owners.

  第三百零二条 共有人对共有物的管理费用以及其他负担,有约定的,按照其约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,按份共有人按照其份额负担,共同共有人共同负担。

Article 302 Where the co-owners have agreed upon the fees for managing the co-owned property and other expenses, such an agreement shall apply; in the absence of such an agreement or if such an agreement is ambiguous, such expenses shall be borne by co-owners in divided co-ownership in proportion to their shares, or be jointly borne by co-owners in undivided co-ownership.

  第三百零三条 共有人约定不得分割共有的不动产或者动产,以维持共有关系的,应当按照约定,但是共有人有重大理由需要分割的,可以请求分割;没有约定或者约定不明确的,按份共有人可以随时请求分割,共同共有人在共有的基础丧失或者有重大理由需要分割时可以请求分割。因分割造成其他共有人损害的,应当给予赔偿。

Article 303 Where the co-owners have agreed not to partition the co-owned immovable or movable in order to maintain the co-ownership, such an agreement shall prevail; however, a co-owner that has any material reason for partition may request partition; in the absence of such an agreement or if the agreement is ambiguous, a co-owner in divided ownership may request partition at any time, while a co-owner in undivided ownership may request partition only if the basis for co-ownership has ceased to exist or partition is justified by any material reason. If the partition causes any damage to any other co-owner, compensation shall be made.

  第三百零四条 共有人可以协商确定分割方式。达不成协议,共有的不动产或者动产可以分割且不会因分割减损价值的,应当对实物予以分割;难以分割或者因分割会减损价值的,应当对折价或者拍卖、变卖取得的价款予以分割。

Article 304 Co-owners may determine the way of partition through consultation. If no agreement is reached and the co-owned immovable or movable may be partitioned without reducing its value, the property shall be partitioned; if it is difficult to partition the property or the partition will decrease its value, the proceeds obtained from the conversion into money, auction or sell-off of the immovable or movable shall be distributed.

共有人分割所得的不动产或者动产有瑕疵的,其他共有人应当分担损失。

Where the immovable or movable obtained by a co-owner through partition has any defect, other co-owners shall share the losses.

  第三百零五条 按份共有人可以转让其享有的共有的不动产或者动产份额。其他共有人在同等条件下享有优先购买的权利。

Article 305 A co-owner in divided co-ownership may transfer its share of the co-owned immovable or movable. Other co-owners have the preemptive right under equal conditions.

  第三百零六条 按份共有人转让其享有的共有的不动产或者动产份额的,应当将转让条件及时通知其他共有人。其他共有人应当在合理期限内行使优先购买权。

Article 306 A co-owner in divided co-ownership that transfers its share of a co-owned immovable or movable shall notify other co-owners of the conditions for transfer in a timely manner. Other co-owners shall exercise the preemptive right within a reasonable period.

两个以上其他共有人主张行使优先购买权的,协商确定各自的购买比例;协商不成的,按照转让时各自的共有份额比例行使优先购买权。

Where two or more other co-owners claim the exercise of the preemptive right, they shall determine their respective purchase ratio through consultation; if such consultation fails, they shall exercise the preemptive right in proportion to their respective shares at the time of transfer.

  第三百零七条 因共有的不动产或者动产产生的债权债务,在对外关系上,共有人享有连带债权、承担连带债务,但是法律另有规定或者第三人知道共有人不具有连带债权债务关系的除外;在共有人内部关系上,除共有人另有约定外,按份共有人按照份额享有债权、承担债务,共同共有人共同享有债权、承担债务。偿还债务超过自己应当承担份额的按份共有人,有权向其他共有人追偿。

Article 307 In external relations, the co-owners shall have joint and several rights and obligations arising from the co-owned immovable or movable, unless it is otherwise provided for by any law or a third party knows that the co-owners do not have joint and several rights and obligations; in internal relations among the co-owners, unless it is otherwise agreed upon by the co-owners, the co-owners in divided co-ownership shall have joint and several rights and obligations in proportion to their shares, while the co-owners in undivided ownership shall jointly have rights and obligations. A co-owner in divided ownership that pays the debt in excess of its share has the right to recover the overpaid amount from other co-owners.

  第三百零八条 共有人对共有的不动产或者动产没有约定为按份共有或者共同共有,或者约定不明确的,除共有人具有家庭关系等外,视为按份共有。

Article 308 Where the co-owners fail to agree that the co-owned immovable or movable is subject to divided co-ownership or undivided co-ownership, or such an agreement is ambiguous, the ownership shall be deemed as divided ownership, unless the co-owners are of a family or have other relations.

  第三百零九条 按份共有人对共有的不动产或者动产享有的份额,没有约定或者约定不明确的,按照出资额确定;不能确定出资额的,视为等额享有。

Article 309 Where the co-owners in divided co-ownership fail to agree on the shares of the co-owned immovable or movable or such an agreement is ambiguous, the shares shall be determined based on their amount of investment. If the amount of investment cannot be determined, it shall be deemed that they have equal shares.

  第三百一十条 两个以上组织、个人共同享有用益物权、担保物权的,参照适用本章的有关规定。

Article 310 The provisions of this Chapter shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to usufruct or security interest enjoyed by two or more organizations or individuals.

第九章 所有权取得的特别规定

Chapter IX Special Provisions on the Obtainment of Ownership

  第三百一十一条 无处分权人将不动产或者动产转让给受让人的,所有权人有权追回;除法律另有规定外,符合下列情形的,受让人取得该不动产或者动产的所有权:

Article 311 Where a person transfers to the transferee an immovable or movable which such a person has no right to dispose of, the owner has the right to recover the immovable or movable; except as otherwise provided for by any law, the transferee shall obtain the ownership of the immovable or movable under any of the following circumstances:

(一)受让人受让该不动产或者动产时是善意;

(1) The transferee is in good faith when accepting the transferred immovable or movable.

(二)以合理的价格转让;

(2) The transfer is made at a reasonable price.

(三)转让的不动产或者动产依照法律规定应当登记的已经登记,不需要登记的已经交付给受让人。

(3) The transferred immovable or movable has been registered as provided for by laws, or has been delivered to the transferee if no registration is required.

受让人依据前款规定取得不动产或者动产的所有权的,原所有权人有权向无处分权人请求损害赔偿。

Where the transferee obtains the ownership of the immovable or movable in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the original owner has the right to claim compensation for damages from the person that has no right to dispose of the immovable or movable.

当事人善意取得其他物权的,参照适用前两款规定。

The preceding two paragraphs shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to a party's obtainment of any other real right in good faith.

  第三百一十二条 所有权人或者其他权利人有权追回遗失物。该遗失物通过转让被他人占有的,权利人有权向无处分权人请求损害赔偿,或者自知道或者应当知道受让人之日起二年内向受让人请求返还原物;但是,受让人通过拍卖或者向具有经营资格的经营者购得该遗失物的,权利人请求返还原物时应当支付受让人所付的费用。权利人向受让人支付所付费用后,有权向无处分权人追偿。

Article 312 The owner or any other right holder has the right to recover lost property. If the lost property is possessed by any other person through transfer, the holder has the right to claim compensation for damages from the person that has no right to dispose of the lost property, or request the transferee to return the original property within two years from the date when he knows or should have known the transferee; however, if the lost property is purchased by the transferee through auction or from a qualified trader, the right holder shall, when requesting the transferee to return the original property, compensate the transferee for the expenses the latter has paid for the property. After compensating the transferee for the expenses the latter has paid for the property, the holder has the right to recover the amount from the person that has no right to dispose of the property.

  第三百一十三条 善意受让人取得动产后,该动产上的原有权利消灭。但是,善意受让人在受让时知道或者应当知道该权利的除外。

Article 313 After the transferee in good faith obtains a movable, the original rights on the movable shall be extinguished, unless the transferee in good faith knows or should have known such rights at the time of transfer.

  第三百一十四条 拾得遗失物,应当返还权利人。拾得人应当及时通知权利人领取,或者送交公安等有关部门。

Article 314 A person who finds the lost property shall return it to the right holder. The finder shall, in a timely manner, notify the right holder to take the property back, or deliver it to the public security organ or any other relevant department.

  第三百一十五条 有关部门收到遗失物,知道权利人的,应当及时通知其领取;不知道的,应当及时发布招领公告。

Article 315 Where the relevant department that receives the found property knows the right holder of the property, it shall, in a timely manner, notify the right holder to take the property back; otherwise, it shall publish a notice on the finding of the lost property in a timely manner.

  第三百一十六条 拾得人在遗失物送交有关部门前,有关部门在遗失物被领取前,应当妥善保管遗失物。因故意或者重大过失致使遗失物毁损、灭失的,应当承担民事责任。

Article 316 Lost property shall be properly kept by the finder before it is handed over to the relevant department and by the relevant department before it is taken back. Whoever causes any damage to or loss of the lost property intentionally or for gross negligence shall assume the civil liability.

  第三百一十七条 权利人领取遗失物时,应当向拾得人或者有关部门支付保管遗失物等支出的必要费用。

Article 317 The right holder shall, when taking back the found property, pay to the finder or the relevant department the necessary expenses such as the cost for the safekeeping of the property.

权利人悬赏寻找遗失物的,领取遗失物时应当按照承诺履行义务。

The right holder that offers a reward to find the lost property shall fulfill his or her obligation as promised when taking the property back.

拾得人侵占遗失物的,无权请求保管遗失物等支出的费用,也无权请求权利人按照承诺履行义务。

A finder that illegally possesses the found property shall have no right to claim the expenses paid for the safekeeping of the property, among others, or to request the right holder to fulfill the obligation as promised.

  第三百一十八条 遗失物自发布招领公告之日起一年内无人认领的,归国家所有。

Article 318 Lost property shall belong to the state if it is not claimed within one year from the date when the notice of the finding of the lost property is published.

  第三百一十九条 拾得漂流物、发现埋藏物或者隐藏物的,参照适用拾得遗失物的有关规定。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。

Article 319 The provisions on the finding of lost property shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to the finding of drifting property, or buried or hidden property, except as otherwise provided for by any law.

  第三百二十条 主物转让的,从物随主物转让,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 320 Where the principal property is transferred, the accessory property shall be transferred along with it, except as otherwise agreed by the parties.

  第三百二十一条 天然孳息,由所有权人取得;既有所有权人又有用益物权人的,由用益物权人取得。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。

Article 321 Natural fruits shall be obtained by the owner; if there are both the owner and the usufructuary, natural fruits shall be obtained by the usufructuary. If it is otherwise agreed upon by the parties, their agreement shall prevail.

法定孳息,当事人有约定的,按照约定取得;没有约定或者约定不明确的,按照交易习惯取得。

Where the parties have agreed on legal fruits, the fruits shall be obtained as agreed upon; in the absence of such an agreement or if such an agreement is ambiguous, the fruits shall be obtained according to the usage of trade.

  第三百二十二条 因加工、附合、混合而产生的物的归属,有约定的,按照约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,依照法律规定;法律没有规定的,按照充分发挥物的效用以及保护无过错当事人的原则确定。因一方当事人的过错或者确定物的归属造成另一方当事人损害的,应当给予赔偿或者补偿。

Article 322 Where there is an agreement on the attribution of the property arising from processing, attachment, or mixing, such an agreement shall prevail; in the absence of such an agreement or if such an agreement is ambiguous, the ownership shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of laws; if it is not provided for by laws, the ownership shall be determined under the principles of maximum use of the property and protection of innocent parties. If one party's fault or the determination of attribution of the property has caused any damage to the other party, compensation shall be made.

第三分编 用益物权

Title Three Usufruct

第十章 一般规定

Chapter X General Rules

  第三百二十三条 用益物权人对他人所有的不动产或者动产,依法享有占有、使用和收益的权利。

Article 323 A usufructuary shall, in accordance with the law, have the right to possess, use and enjoy the immovable or movable owned by any other person.

  第三百二十四条 国家所有或者国家所有由集体使用以及法律规定属于集体所有的自然资源,组织、个人依法可以占有、使用和收益。

Article 324 An organization or individual may, in accordance with the law, possess, use and enjoy the natural resources that are owned by the state, or owned by the state but are used by the collective, or owned by the collective as provided for by laws.

  第三百二十五条 国家实行自然资源有偿使用制度,但是法律另有规定的除外。

Article 325 The state implements the rules for the compensated use of natural resources, except as otherwise provided for by any law.

  第三百二十六条 用益物权人行使权利,应当遵守法律有关保护和合理开发利用资源、保护生态环境的规定。所有权人不得干涉用益物权人行使权利。

Article 326 A usufructuary exercising rights shall comply with the provisions of laws on the protection, reasonable exploitation and utilization of resources, and the protection of ecology and environment. The owner shall not interfere with the exercise of rights by the usufrustuary.

  第三百二十七条 因不动产或者动产被征收、征用致使用益物权消灭或者影响用益物权行使的,用益物权人有权依据本法第二百四十三条、第二百四十五条的规定获得相应补偿。

Article 327 Where an immovable or movable is expropriated or requisitioned, which results in the extinction of the usufruct or affects the use of usufruct, the usufructuary has the right to compensation according to Articles 243 and 245 of this Code.

  第三百二十八条 依法取得的海域使用权受法律保护。

Article 328 The right to use sea areas that is obtained in accordance with law shall be protected by law.

  第三百二十九条 依法取得的探矿权、采矿权、取水权和使用水域、滩涂从事养殖、捕捞的权利受法律保护。

Article 329 The mineral exploration right, the mining right, the water intake right and the right to use water areas or intertidal zones for aquaculture or fishery, which are obtained in accordance with the law, shall be protected by law.

第十一章 土地承包经营权

Chapter XI Conventional Usufruct on Rural Land for Agricultural Operations

  第三百三十条 农村集体经济组织实行家庭承包经营为基础、统分结合的双层经营体制。

Article 330 Rural collective economic organizations shall implement the two-level management system characterized by the combination of centralized operation with decentralized operation on the basis of household contracted management.

农民集体所有和国家所有由农民集体使用的耕地、林地、草地以及其他用于农业的土地,依法实行土地承包经营制度。

The system of land contracting for agricultural operations shall, in accordance with the law, be applied to arable land, forest land, grassland and other land for agricultural use, which are owned by farmers collectively or owned by the state but are used by farmers collectively.

  第三百三十一条 土地承包经营权人依法对其承包经营的耕地、林地、草地等享有占有、使用和收益的权利,有权从事种植业、林业、畜牧业等农业生产。

Article 331 The holder of a conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations shall, in accordance with the law, have the right to possess, use, and enjoy the arable land, forest land, grassland, among others, which are under their contracting for agricultural operations, and shall have the right to engage in agricultural production, including but not limited to crop cultivation, forestry and animal husbandry.

  第三百三十二条 耕地的承包期为三十年。草地的承包期为三十年至五十年。林地的承包期为三十年至七十年。

Article 332 The term of a usufruct on arable land shall be 30 years. The term of a usufruct on grassland shall range from 30 years to 50 years. The term of a usufruct on forest land shall range from 30 years and 70 years.

前款规定的承包期限届满,由土地承包经营权人依照农村土地承包的法律规定继续承包。

The term of a usufruct set out in the preceding paragraph may be renewed upon expiration by the holder of a conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations in accordance with the provisions of laws on the contracting of rural land.

  第三百三十三条 土地承包经营权自土地承包经营权合同生效时设立。

Article 333 A conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations shall be created from the date when the contract for the usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations becomes valid.

登记机构应当向土地承包经营权人发放土地承包经营权证、林权证等证书,并登记造册,确认土地承包经营权。

The registration authority shall issue to the holder of a conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations the certificate of a conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations, a certificate of a forest right, or any other certificate for such a purpose, and register it in archives to confirm the conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations.

  第三百三十四条 土地承包经营权人依照法律规定,有权将土地承包经营权互换、转让。未经依法批准,不得将承包地用于非农建设。

Article 334 The holder of a conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations shall have the right to exchange and transfer the conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations in accordance with the provisions of laws. No contracted land may be used for non-agricultural construction without approval in accordance with the law.

  第三百三十五条 土地承包经营权互换、转让的,当事人可以向登记机构申请登记;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。

Article 335 In case of the exchange or transfer of the conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations, the party may apply to the registration authority for registration; and if it is not registered, it shall not be set up against a bona fide third party.

  第三百三十六条 承包期内发包人不得调整承包地。

Article 336 During the term of a usufruct, the landowner shall not adjust the contracted land.

因自然灾害严重毁损承包地等特殊情形,需要适当调整承包的耕地和草地的,应当依照农村土地承包的法律规定办理。

When the contracted arable land or grassland needs to be adjusted appropriately due to special circumstances, such as serious damage to the contracted land or grassland caused by a natural disaster, the matter shall be handled in accordance with the provisions of laws on the contracting of rural land.

  第三百三十七条 承包期内发包人不得收回承包地。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。

Article 337 During the term of a usufruct, the landowner may not recover the contracted land, except as otherwise provided for by any law.

  第三百三十八条 承包地被征收的,土地承包经营权人有权依据本法第二百四十三条的规定获得相应补偿。

Article 338 Where the contracted land is expropriated, the holder of a conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations has the right to compensation in accordance with Article 243 of this Code.

  第三百三十九条 土地承包经营权人可以自主决定依法采取出租、入股或者其他方式向他人流转土地经营权。

Article 339 The holder of a conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations may, at its own discretion, circulate the land operating right to others by leasing, contribution for shares, or other means in accordance with the law.

  第三百四十条 土地经营权人有权在合同约定的期限内占有农村土地,自主开展农业生产经营并取得收益。

Article 340 The holder of the land operating right has the right to occupy rural land, carry out agricultural production and operation independently, and obtain proceeds, during the period as agreed upon in the contract.

  第三百四十一条 流转期限为五年以上的土地经营权,自流转合同生效时设立。当事人可以向登记机构申请土地经营权登记;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。

Article 341 The land operating right with a circulation period of five years or more shall be created when the circulation contract becomes valid. A party may apply to the registration authority for the registration of the land operating right; and if it is not registered, it shall not be set up against a bona fide third party.

  第三百四十二条 通过招标、拍卖、公开协商等方式承包农村土地,经依法登记取得权属证书的,可以依法采取出租、入股、抵押或者其他方式流转土地经营权。

Article 342 Where rural land is contracted by bidding, auction, open consultation, or other means, and the certificate of ownership has been obtained upon registration in accordance with the law, the land operating right may be legally circulated by leasing, contribution for shares, mortgage, or other means.

  第三百四十三条 国家所有的农用地实行承包经营的,参照适用本编的有关规定。

Article 343 The relevant provisions of this Book shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to the contracting of land for agricultural use owned by the state for agricultural operations.

第十二章 建设用地使用权

Chapter XII Right to Use Land for Construction

  第三百四十四条 建设用地使用权人依法对国家所有的土地享有占有、使用和收益的权利,有权利用该土地建造建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施。

Article 344 The holder of the right to use land for construction shall, in accordance with the law, have the right to possess, use and enjoy the land owned by the state, and shall have the right to use such land to construct buildings, structures and their ancillary facilities.

  第三百四十五条 建设用地使用权可以在土地的地表、地上或者地下分别设立。

Article 345 The right to use land for construction may be created separately on the surface of, above or under the ground.

  第三百四十六条 设立建设用地使用权,应当符合节约资源、保护生态环境的要求,遵守法律、行政法规关于土地用途的规定,不得损害已经设立的用益物权。

Article 346 The right to use land for construction shall be created in compliance with the requirements for the conservation of resources and protection of ecological environment, and the provisions of laws and administrative regulations on land use, and shall not damage the usufruct that has already been created.

  第三百四十七条 设立建设用地使用权,可以采取出让或者划拨等方式。

Article 347 The right to use land for construction may be created by assignment, allocation, or other means.

工业、商业、旅游、娱乐和商品住宅等经营性用地以及同一土地有两个以上意向用地者的,应当采取招标、拍卖等公开竞价的方式出让。

Where land is used for industrial, commercial, tourist, or entertaining purposes, constructing commercial residential buildings, or for other profit-making purposes, or two or more persons are willing to use the same tract of land, the right to use land for construction shall be assigned through bidding, auction, or other open bidding methods.

严格限制以划拨方式设立建设用地使用权。

The creation of the right to use land for construction by means of allocation shall be strictly controlled.

  第三百四十八条 通过招标、拍卖、协议等出让方式设立建设用地使用权的,当事人应当采用书面形式订立建设用地使用权出让合同。

Article 348 Where the right to use land for construction is created through bidding, auction, agreement, or by other means of assignment, the parties shall enter into a written contract on the assignment of the right to use land for construction.

建设用地使用权出让合同一般包括下列条款:

The contract on the assignment of the right to use land for construction shall generally include the following clauses:

(一)当事人的名称和住所;

(1) Names and domiciles of the parties.

(二)土地界址、面积等;

(2) The boundary and area, among others, of the land.

(三)建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施占用的空间;

(3) The space occupied by buildings, structures and their ancillary facilities.

(四)土地用途、规划条件;

(4) Use of the land and conditions for planning.

(五)建设用地使用权期限;

(5) Term of the right to use land for construction.

(六)出让金等费用及其支付方式;

(6) Land transaction fees and other expenses and the methods for the payment thereof.

(七)解决争议的方法。

(7) Methods for the resolution of disputes.

  第三百四十九条 设立建设用地使用权的,应当向登记机构申请建设用地使用权登记。建设用地使用权自登记时设立。登记机构应当向建设用地使用权人发放权属证书。

Article 349 For the creation of the right to use land for construction, an application for the registration of the right to use land for construction shall be filed with the registration authority. The right to use land for construction shall be created at the time of registration. The registration authority shall issue a certificate of ownership to the holder of the right to use land for construction.

  第三百五十条 建设用地使用权人应当合理利用土地,不得改变土地用途;需要改变土地用途的,应当依法经有关行政主管部门批准。

Article 350 The holder of the right to use land for construction shall make rational use of the land, and shall not change the use of the land; and if the use of the land needs to be changed, it shall be subject to the approval of the relevant administrative department in accordance with the law.

  第三百五十一条 建设用地使用权人应当依照法律规定以及合同约定支付出让金等费用。

Article 351 The holder of the right to use land for construction shall pay land transaction fees and other expenses according to the provisions of laws and as agreed upon in the contract.

  第三百五十二条 建设用地使用权人建造的建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施的所有权属于建设用地使用权人,但是有相反证据证明的除外。

Article 352 The ownership of the buildings, structures and their ancillary facilities constructed by the holder of the right to use land for construction shall belong to the holder of the right to use land for construction, unless it is otherwise proved by contrary evidence.

  第三百五十三条 建设用地使用权人有权将建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资、赠与或者抵押,但是法律另有规定的除外。

Article 353 The holder of the right to use land for construction has the right to transfer, exchange, contribute as capital, gift, or mortgage the right to use land for construction, except as otherwise provided for by any law.

  第三百五十四条 建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资、赠与或者抵押的,当事人应当采用书面形式订立相应的合同。使用期限由当事人约定,但是不得超过建设用地使用权的剩余期限。

Article 354 Where the right to use land for construction is transferred, exchanged, contributed as capital, gifted, or mortgaged, the parties shall enter into a corresponding contract in a written form. The use term shall be agreed upon by the parties, provided that it shall not exceed the remaining term of the right to use land for construction.

  第三百五十五条 建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资或者赠与的,应当向登记机构申请变更登记。

Article 355 Where the right to use land for construction is transferred, exchanged, contributed as capital, or gifted, an application for modification registration shall be filed with the registration authority.

  第三百五十六条 建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资或者赠与的,附着于该土地上的建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施一并处分。

Article 356 Where the right to use land for construction is transferred, exchanged, contributed as capital, or gifted, the buildings, structures and their ancillary facilities on the land shall be disposed of along with the right.

  第三百五十七条 建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施转让、互换、出资或者赠与的,该建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施占用范围内的建设用地使用权一并处分。

Article 357 Where buildings, structures and their ancillary facilities are transferred, exchanged, contributed as capital, or gifted, the right to use land for construction within the area occupied by such buildings, structures and their ancillary facilities shall be disposed of along with them.

  第三百五十八条 建设用地使用权期限届满前,因公共利益需要提前收回该土地的,应当依据本法第二百四十三条的规定对该土地上的房屋以及其他不动产给予补偿,并退还相应的出让金。

Article 358 Where, before the expiration of the term of the right to use land for construction, the land needs to be recovered in advance in the interest of the public, indemnities for the buildings and other immovables on the land shall be given in accordance with Article 243 of this Code, and the corresponding land transaction fees shall be refunded.

  第三百五十九条 住宅建设用地使用权期限届满的,自动续期。续期费用的缴纳或者减免,依照法律、行政法规的规定办理。

Article 359 The term of the right to use land for the construction of housing units shall be automatically renewed upon expiration. The payment, reduction or exemption of the renewal fee shall be handled in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations.

非住宅建设用地使用权期限届满后的续期,依照法律规定办理。该土地上的房屋以及其他不动产的归属,有约定的,按照约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,依照法律、行政法规的规定办理。

The term of the right to use land not for the construction of housing units shall be renewed upon expiration in accordance with the provisions of laws. If there is an agreement on the attribution of buildings and other immovables on the aforesaid land, such an agreement shall prevail; in the absence of such an agreement or if such an agreement is ambiguous, the ownership shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations.

  第三百六十条 建设用地使用权消灭的,出让人应当及时办理注销登记。登记机构应当收回权属证书。

Article 360 Where the right to use land for construction is extinguished, the assignor shall undergo deregistration in a timely manner. The registration authority shall take back the ownership certificate.

  第三百六十一条 集体所有的土地作为建设用地的,应当依照土地管理的法律规定办理。

Article 361 Where a tract of land owned by the collective is to be used for construction, the matter shall be handled according to the provisions of laws on land administration.

第十三章 宅基地使用权

Chapter XIII Right to Use Rural Land as a Residential Lot

  第三百六十二条 宅基地使用权人依法对集体所有的土地享有占有和使用的权利,有权依法利用该土地建造住宅及其附属设施。

Article 362 The holder of the right to use rural land as a residential lot shall, in accordance with the law, have the right to possess and use collectively-owned land, and use the land for constructing houses and their ancillary facilities.

  第三百六十三条 宅基地使用权的取得、行使和转让,适用土地管理的法律和国家有关规定。

Article 363 The laws on land administration and the relevant provisions issued by the state shall apply to the acquisition, exercise and transfer of the right to use rural land as a residential lot.

  第三百六十四条 宅基地因自然灾害等原因灭失的,宅基地使用权消灭。对失去宅基地的村民,应当依法重新分配宅基地。

Article 364 When rural land as a residential lot is destroyed or lost due to a natural disaster or any other reason, the right to use rural land as a residential lot is extinguished. New rural land as a residential lot shall be allocated to the villagers who have lost their rural land as a residential lot in accordance with the law.

  第三百六十五条 已经登记的宅基地使用权转让或者消灭的,应当及时办理变更登记或者注销登记。

Article 365 Where the registered right to use rural land as a residential lot is transferred or extinguished, modification registration or deregistration shall be undergone in a timely manner.

第十四章 居住权

Chapter XIV Right of Habitation

  第三百六十六条 居住权人有权按照合同约定,对他人的住宅享有占有、使用的用益物权,以满足生活居住的需要。

Article 366 As agreed upon in a contract, a person having a right of habitation enjoys the usufruct to occupy and use another's housing unit so as to meet the needs of living.

  第三百六十七条 设立居住权,当事人应当采用书面形式订立居住权合同。

Article 367 To create a right of habitation, the parties shall enter into a contract on the right of habitation in a written form.

居住权合同一般包括下列条款:

The contract on the right of habitation shall generally include the following clauses:

(一)当事人的姓名或者名称和住所;

(1) Names or titles, and domiciles of the parties.

(二)住宅的位置;

(2) Location of the housing unit.

(三)居住的条件和要求;

(3) The conditions and requirements for habitation.

(四)居住权期限;

(4) Term of the right of habitation.

(五)解决争议的方法。

(5) Methods for the resolution of disputes.

  第三百六十八条 居住权无偿设立,但是当事人另有约定的除外。设立居住权的,应当向登记机构申请居住权登记。居住权自登记时设立。

Article 368 The right of habitation shall be created free of charge, unless it is otherwise agreed upon by the parties. If the right of habitation is created, an application for the registration of the right of habitation shall be filed with the registration authority. The right of habitation is created at the time of registration.

  第三百六十九条 居住权不得转让、继承。设立居住权的住宅不得出租,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 369 The right of habitation may not be transferred or inherited. A housing unit with the right of habitation created shall not be leased, unless it is otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

  第三百七十条 居住权期限届满或者居住权人死亡的,居住权消灭。居住权消灭的,应当及时办理注销登记。

Article 370 The right of habitation is extinguished when the term of the right of habitation expires or the person having the right of habitation dies. If the right of habitation is extinguished, deregistration shall be undergone in a timely manner.

  第三百七十一条 以遗嘱方式设立居住权的,参照适用本章的有关规定。

Article 371 The relevant provisions of this Chapter shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to the creation of the right of habitation by testament.

第十五章 地役权

Chapter XV Servitude

  第三百七十二条 地役权人有权按照合同约定,利用他人的不动产,以提高自己的不动产的效益。

Article 372 The owner of the land to which the servitude is owed has the right to use another's immovable as agreed upon in the contract, so as to enhance the benefits of its own immovable.

前款所称他人的不动产为供役地,自己的不动产为需役地。

For the purposes of the preceding paragraph, another's immovable is the servient land, and one's own immovable is the dominant land.

  第三百七十三条 设立地役权,当事人应当采用书面形式订立地役权合同。

Article 373 To create servitude, the parties shall enter into a servitude contract in a written form.

地役权合同一般包括下列条款:

The servitude contract shall generally include the following clauses:

(一)当事人的姓名或者名称和住所;

(1) Names or titles, and domiciles of the parties.

(二)供役地和需役地的位置;

(2) Locations of the servient land and dominant land.

(三)利用目的和方法;

(3) Purposes and methods of use.

(四)地役权期限;

(4) Term of servitude.

(五)费用及其支付方式;

(5) Fees and methods for the payment thereof.

(六)解决争议的方法。

(6) Methods for the resolution of disputes.

  第三百七十四条 地役权自地役权合同生效时设立。当事人要求登记的,可以向登记机构申请地役权登记;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。

Article 374 Servitude is created when the servitude contract becomes valid. If the parties request registration, they may apply to the registration authority for the registration of servitude; and if it is not registered, it shall not be used to set up against a bona fide third party.

  第三百七十五条 供役地权利人应当按照合同约定,允许地役权人利用其不动产,不得妨害地役权人行使权利。

Article 375 The owner of the servient land shall, as agreed upon in the contract, allow the owner of the land to which the servitude is owed to use its immovable, and shall not interfere with the latter's exercise of servitude.

  第三百七十六条 地役权人应当按照合同约定的利用目的和方法利用供役地,尽量减少对供役地权利人物权的限制。

Article 376 The owner of the land to which the servitude is owed shall use the servient land according to the purposes and methods of use as agreed upon in the contract and to reduce as much as possible the restrictions on the real right of the owner of the servient land.

  第三百七十七条 地役权期限由当事人约定;但是,不得超过土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等用益物权的剩余期限。

Article 377 The term of servitude shall be agreed upon by the parties, provided that it shall not exceed the remaining term of usufruct, such as the conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations and the right to use land for construction.

  第三百七十八条 土地所有权人享有地役权或者负担地役权的,设立土地承包经营权、宅基地使用权等用益物权时,该用益物权人继续享有或者负担已经设立的地役权。

Article 378 Where the landowner enjoys or is burdened by servitude, when the conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations, the right to use rural land as a residential lot, or any other usufruct is created, the usufructuary shall continue to enjoy or be burdened by the created servitude.

  第三百七十九条 土地上已经设立土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权、宅基地使用权等用益物权的,未经用益物权人同意,土地所有权人不得设立地役权。

Article 379 Where the conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations, the right to use land for construction, the right to use rural land as a residential lot, or any other usufruct has been created on land, the landowner shall not create servitude without the consent of the usufructuary.

  第三百八十条 地役权不得单独转让。土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等转让的,地役权一并转让,但是合同另有约定的除外。

Article 380 Servitude shall not be transferred separately. If the conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations, or the right to use land for construction, among others, is transferred, servitude shall be transferred along with it, unless it is otherwise agreed upon in the contract.

  第三百八十一条 地役权不得单独抵押。土地经营权、建设用地使用权等抵押的,在实现抵押权时,地役权一并转让。

Article 381 Servitude shall not be mortgaged separately. If the usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations, or the right to use land for construction, among others, is mortgaged, servitude shall be transferred along with it when mortgage is exercised.

  第三百八十二条 需役地以及需役地上的土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等部分转让时,转让部分涉及地役权的,受让人同时享有地役权。

Article 382 When the dominant land and the conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations or the right to use land for construction thereon, among others, is partially transferred, if servitude is involved in the transferred part, the transferee shall enjoy the servitude at the same time.

  第三百八十三条 供役地以及供役地上的土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等部分转让时,转让部分涉及地役权的,地役权对受让人具有法律约束力。

Article 383 When the servient land and the conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations or the right to use land for construction thereon, among others, is partially transferred, if servitude is involved in the transferred part, the servitude shall be legally binding upon the transferee.

  第三百八十四条 地役权人有下列情形之一的,供役地权利人有权解除地役权合同,地役权消灭:

Article 384 Where the owner of the land to which the servitude is owed falls under any of the following circumstances, the owner of the servient land has the right to rescind the servitude contract, and servitude is extinguished.

(一)违反法律规定或者合同约定,滥用地役权;

(1) Abusing servitude in violation of the provisions of any law or those agreed upon in the contract.

(二)有偿利用供役地,约定的付款期限届满后在合理期限内经两次催告未支付费用。

(2) Failing to pay fees for the compensated use of the servient land after being urged to do so for two times within a reasonable period, after the expiration of the agreed term for payment.

  第三百八十五条 已经登记的地役权变更、转让或者消灭的,应当及时办理变更登记或者注销登记。

Article 385 Where a registered servitude is modified, transferred, or extinguished, modification registration or deregistration shall be undergone in a timely manner.

第四分编 担保物权

Title Four Security Interests

第十六章 一般规定

Chapter XVI General Rules

  第三百八十六条 担保物权人在债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现担保物权的情形,依法享有就担保财产优先受偿的权利,但是法律另有规定的除外。

Article 386 The security interest holder shall, in accordance with the law, have the priority of compensation made from the property posted as security if the debtor fails to pay the due debt or falls under any circumstance where security interest shall be exercised as agreed upon by the parties, except as otherwise provided for by any law.

  第三百八十七条 债权人在借贷、买卖等民事活动中,为保障实现其债权,需要担保的,可以依照本法和其他法律的规定设立担保物权。

Article 387 The creditor may, in loans, sales or other civil activities, create security interest in accordance with the provisions of this Code and other laws, if security is required to guarantee the performance of obligation.

第三人为债务人向债权人提供担保的,可以要求债务人提供反担保。反担保适用本法和其他法律的规定。

A third party that provides security to the creditor for the debtor may require the debtor to provide counter guarantee. The relevant provisions of this Code and other laws shall apply to counter guarantee.

  第三百八十八条 设立担保物权,应当依照本法和其他法律的规定订立担保合同。担保合同包括抵押合同、质押合同和其他具有担保功能的合同。担保合同是主债权债务合同的从合同。主债权债务合同无效的,担保合同无效,但是法律另有规定的除外。

Article 388 For the creation of security interest, a contract on the provision of security shall be entered into in accordance with the provisions of this Code and other laws. Contracts on the provision of security include mortgage contracts, pledge contracts and other contracts with security functions. A contract on the provision of security is a collateral contract of the master contract on obligations. When the master contract on obligations ceases to be effective, the contract on the provision of security shall cease to be effective accordingly, except as otherwise provided for by any law.

担保合同被确认无效后,债务人、担保人、债权人有过错的,应当根据其过错各自承担相应的民事责任。

After a contract on the provision of security is confirmed null and void, if the debtor, the guarantor and the creditor are at fault, they shall assume corresponding civil liability in light of their respective fault.

  第三百八十九条 担保物权的担保范围包括主债权及其利息、违约金、损害赔偿金、保管担保财产和实现担保物权的费用。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。

Article 389 The scope of security interest covers the principal claim and the interest therefrom, default fine, compensation for damages, and the expenses for keeping the property posted as security and for exercising security interest. If it is otherwise agreed upon by the parties, such an agreement shall prevail.

  第三百九十条 担保期间,担保财产毁损、灭失或者被征收等,担保物权人可以就获得的保险金、赔偿金或者补偿金等优先受偿。被担保债权的履行期限未届满的,也可以提存该保险金、赔偿金或者补偿金等。

Article 390 Where the property posted as security is damaged, lost, or expropriated, among others, during the term of provision of security, the security interest holder has the priority of compensation made with the insurance money, compensatory damages, or indemnity, among others. The insurance money, compensatory damages, or indemnity, among others, may also be set aside before the term for performing the obligation as secured expires.

  第三百九十一条 第三人提供担保,未经其书面同意,债权人允许债务人转移全部或者部分债务的,担保人不再承担相应的担保责任。

Article 391 Where a security is provided by a third party, if the creditor permits the debtor's transfer of all or part of its obligations without the written consent of the third party, the guarantor shall no longer assume the corresponding suretyship.

  第三百九十二条 被担保的债权既有物的担保又有人的担保的,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现担保物权的情形,债权人应当按照约定实现债权;没有约定或者约定不明确,债务人自己提供物的担保的,债权人应当先就该物的担保实现债权;第三人提供物的担保的,债权人可以就物的担保实现债权,也可以请求保证人承担保证责任。提供担保的第三人承担担保责任后,有权向债务人追偿。

Article 392 Where both property posted as security and suretyship are provided to secure a creditor's right, if the debtor fails to pay the due debt or falls under any circumstance where security interest shall be exercised as agreed upon by the parties, the creditor shall exercise the creditor's right as agreed; in the absence of such an agreement or if such an agreement is ambiguous, if the debtor itself or himself provides a property as security, the creditor shall first exercise the creditor's right with such a property; if a third party provides a property as security, the creditor may either exercise the creditor's right with such a property or claim the guarantor's assumption of suretyship. The third party has the right of recourse against the debtor after performing the suretyship.

  第三百九十三条 有下列情形之一的,担保物权消灭:

Article 393 Security interest is extinguished under any of following circumstances:

(一)主债权消灭;

(1) The principal claim is extinguished.

(二)担保物权实现;

(2) The security interest is exercised.

(三)债权人放弃担保物权;

(3) The creditor waives the security interest.

(四)法律规定担保物权消灭的其他情形。

(4) Any other circumstance where security interest shall be extinguished as provided for by any law.

第十七章 抵押权

Chapter XVII Mortgage

第一节 一般抵押权

Section 1 Ordinary Mortgage

  第三百九十四条 为担保债务的履行,债务人或者第三人不转移财产的占有,将该财产抵押给债权人的,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,债权人有权就该财产优先受偿。

Article 394 Where, for securing the performance of an obligation, the debtor or a third party mortgages a property to the creditor instead of transferring the possession of such a property, if the debtor fails to pay the due debt or falls under any circumstance where mortgage shall be exercised as agreed upon by the parties, the creditor shall have the priority of compensation made from such a property.

前款规定的债务人或者第三人为抵押人,债权人为抵押权人,提供担保的财产为抵押财产。

For the purposes of the preceding paragraph, the debtor or the third party is the mortgagor, the creditor is the mortgagee, and the property posted as security is the mortgaged property.

  第三百九十五条 债务人或者第三人有权处分的下列财产可以抵押:

Article 395 The following property which the debtor or a third party has the right to dispose of may be mortgaged:

(一)建筑物和其他土地附着物;

(1) Buildings and other fixtures on land.

(二)建设用地使用权;

(2) The right to use land for construction.

(三)海域使用权;

(3) The right to use sea areas.

(四)生产设备、原材料、半成品、产品;

(4) Production equipment, raw materials, semi-finished products, and products.

(五)正在建造的建筑物、船舶、航空器;

(5) Buildings, vessels, and aircrafts under construction.

(六)交通运输工具;

(6) Means of transportation.

(七)法律、行政法规未禁止抵押的其他财产。

(7) Any other property that is not prohibited from being mortgaged by any law or administrative regulation.

抵押人可以将前款所列财产一并抵押。

The mortgagor may mortgage all the property set out in the preceding paragraph at the same time.

  第三百九十六条 企业、个体工商户、农业生产经营者可以将现有的以及将有的生产设备、原材料、半成品、产品抵押,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,债权人有权就抵押财产确定时的动产优先受偿。

Article 396 An enterprise, industrial and commercial household, or agricultural producer or trader may mortgage its existing and anticipated production equipment, raw materials, semi-finished products, and products, and if the debtor fails to pay the due debt or falls under any circumstance where mortgage shall be exercised as agreed upon by the parties, the creditor shall have the priority of compensation made with the movable determined as the mortgaged property.

  第三百九十七条 以建筑物抵押的,该建筑物占用范围内的建设用地使用权一并抵押。以建设用地使用权抵押的,该土地上的建筑物一并抵押。

Article 397 Where a building is mortgaged, the right to use land for construction within the area occupied by the building shall be mortgaged along with the building. If the right to use land for construction is mortgaged, the buildings on the land shall be mortgaged along with such a right.

抵押人未依据前款规定一并抵押的,未抵押的财产视为一并抵押。

Where the mortgagor fails to mortgage as provided for in the preceding paragraph, the property not mortgaged shall be deemed to have been mortgaged along with the mortgaged property.

  第三百九十八条 乡镇、村企业的建设用地使用权不得单独抵押。以乡镇、村企业的厂房等建筑物抵押的,其占用范围内的建设用地使用权一并抵押。

Article 398 The right to use land for construction enjoyed by a township (town) or village enterprise may not be mortgaged separately. If the workshop or any other building of a township (town) or village enterprise is mortgaged, the right to use land for construction within the area occupied by the workshop or building shall be mortgaged along with the workshop or building.

  第三百九十九条 下列财产不得抵押:

Article 399 The following property may not be mortgaged:

(一)土地所有权;

(1) Land ownership.

(二)宅基地、自留地、自留山等集体所有土地的使用权,但是法律规定可以抵押的除外;

(2) The right to use the land owned by the collective, such as rural land as a residential lot, private plots and hilly land allotted for private use, except that it may be mortgaged as provided for by any law.

(三)学校、幼儿园、医疗机构等为公益目的成立的非营利法人的教育设施、医疗卫生设施和其他公益设施;

(3) Educational, medical and health, and other public welfare facilities of schools, kindergartens, medical institutions, and other non-profit legal persons formed for public welfare purposes.

(四)所有权、使用权不明或者有争议的财产;

(4) Property of which the ownership or the right to use is ambiguous or controversial.

(五)依法被查封、扣押、监管的财产;

(5) Property seized, detained, or overseen in accordance with the law.

(六)法律、行政法规规定不得抵押的其他财产。

(6) Any other property which may not be mortgaged as provided for by laws and administrative regulations.

  第四百条 设立抵押权,当事人应当采用书面形式订立抵押合同。

Article 400 To create mortgage, the parties shall enter into a mortgage contract in a written form.

抵押合同一般包括下列条款:

The mortgage contract shall generally include the following clauses:

(一)被担保债权的种类和数额;

(1) The type and amount of the secured claim.

(二)债务人履行债务的期限;

(2) The term for the debtor to perform the obligation.

(三)抵押财产的名称、数量等情况;

(3) The name, quality and other information of the mortgaged property.

(四)担保的范围。

(4) The scope of security.

  第四百零一条 抵押权人在债务履行期限届满前,与抵押人约定债务人不履行到期债务时抵押财产归债权人所有的,只能依法就抵押财产优先受偿。

Article 401 Where, before the expiration of the term for performing obligations, the mortgagee agree with the mortgagor that the mortgaged property shall belong to the creditor when the debtor fails to pay the due debt, the creditor may only have the priority of compensation made from the mortgaged property.

  第四百零二条 以本法第三百九十五条第一款第一项至第三项规定的财产或者第五项规定的正在建造的建筑物抵押的,应当办理抵押登记。抵押权自登记时设立。

Article 402 Where a property set out in subparagraphs (1) through (3) or a building under construction set out in subparagraph (5), paragraph 1 of Article 395 of this Code is mortgaged, mortgage registration shall be undergone. Mortgage is created at the time of registration.

  第四百零三条 以动产抵押的,抵押权自抵押合同生效时设立;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。

Article 403 Where a movable is mortgaged, mortgage is created at the time when the mortgage contract becomes valid; and if it is not registered, it shall not be set up against a bona fide third party.

  第四百零四条 以动产抵押的,不得对抗正常经营活动中已经支付合理价款并取得抵押财产的买受人。

Article 404 Where a movable is mortgaged, it shall not be set up against the buyer that has paid reasonable price and obtained the mortgaged property in ordinary business activities.

  第四百零五条 抵押权设立前,抵押财产已经出租并转移占有的,原租赁关系不受该抵押权的影响。

Article 405 Where the mortgaged property has been leased and the possession thereof has been transferred before the creation of mortgage, the original lease relations shall not be affected by the mortgage.

  第四百零六条 抵押期间,抵押人可以转让抵押财产。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。抵押财产转让的,抵押权不受影响。

Article 406 The mortgagor may transfer the mortgaged property during the mortgage term. If it is otherwise agreed upon by the parties, their agreement shall prevail. Mortgage is not affected if the mortgaged property is transferred.

抵押人转让抵押财产的,应当及时通知抵押权人。抵押权人能够证明抵押财产转让可能损害抵押权的,可以请求抵押人将转让所得的价款向抵押权人提前清偿债务或者提存。转让的价款超过债权数额的部分归抵押人所有,不足部分由债务人清偿。

The mortgagor that transfers the mortgaged property shall notify the mortgagee in a timely manner. If the mortgagee is able to prove that mortgage may be damaged due to the transfer of the mortgaged property, the mortgagee may request the mortgagor to pay off the debt with the proceeds obtained from such transfer to the mortgagee in advance or set aside the proceeds. The part of proceeds obtained from transfer exceeding the amount of claim shall belong to the mortgagor, and if the proceeds are insufficient to pay the debt, the shortfall shall be paid off by the debtor.

  第四百零七条 抵押权不得与债权分离而单独转让或者作为其他债权的担保。债权转让的,担保该债权的抵押权一并转让,但是法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 407 Mortgage may not be separated from the creditor's right and transferred alone, or be used as a security for any other creditor's right. If the creditor's right is transferred, the mortgage to secure the creditor's right shall be transferred along with it, unless it is otherwise provided for by any law or agreed upon by the parties.

  第四百零八条 抵押人的行为足以使抵押财产价值减少的,抵押权人有权请求抵押人停止其行为;抵押财产价值减少的,抵押权人有权请求恢复抵押财产的价值,或者提供与减少的价值相应的担保。抵押人不恢复抵押财产的价值,也不提供担保的,抵押权人有权请求债务人提前清偿债务。

Article 408 Where the mortgagor's act is sufficient to decrease the value of the mortgaged property, the mortgagee has the right to request the mortgagor to cease such an act. If the value of the mortgaged property decreases, the mortgagee has the right to claim the restoration of the original value of the mortgaged property or the provision of security corresponding to the amount of the value reduced. If the mortgagor fails to restore the original value of the mortgaged property or to provide security, the mortgagee has the right to request the debtor to pay off the debt in advance.

  第四百零九条 抵押权人可以放弃抵押权或者抵押权的顺位。抵押权人与抵押人可以协议变更抵押权顺位以及被担保的债权数额等内容。但是,抵押权的变更未经其他抵押权人书面同意的,不得对其他抵押权人产生不利影响。

Article 409 The mortgagee may waive the mortgage or its place in the order of mortgage. The mortgagee and the mortgagor may, upon agreement, modify such content as the place in the order of mortgage and the amount of secured claim, provided that such modification shall not have any adverse effect on any other mortgagee without the written consent of any other mortgagee.

债务人以自己的财产设定抵押,抵押权人放弃该抵押权、抵押权顺位或者变更抵押权的,其他担保人在抵押权人丧失优先受偿权益的范围内免除担保责任,但是其他担保人承诺仍然提供担保的除外。

Where the debtor creates mortgage with the property thereof, if the mortgagee waives the mortgage or place in the order of mortgage or makes any modification in respect of the mortgage thereof, other guarantors shall be exempted from the suretyship to the extent that the mortgagee forfeits the priority of compensation, unless other guarantors are still committed to the suretyship.

  第四百一十条 债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,抵押权人可以与抵押人协议以抵押财产折价或者以拍卖、变卖该抵押财产所得的价款优先受偿。协议损害其他债权人利益的,其他债权人可以请求人民法院撤销该协议。

Article 410 Where the debtor fails to pay the due debt or falls under any circumstance where mortgage shall be exercised as agreed upon by the parties, the mortgagee may agree with the mortgagor that it has priority of compensation made with the money into which the mortgaged property is converted or the proceeds obtained from the auction or sell-off of the property. If such an agreement damages the interests of any other creditor, the other creditor may request the people's court to revoke the agreement.

抵押权人与抵押人未就抵押权实现方式达成协议的,抵押权人可以请求人民法院拍卖、变卖抵押财产。

Where the mortgagee and the mortgagor fail to reach an agreement on the means of exercising mortgage, the mortgagee may request the people's court to have the mortgaged property auctioned or sold off.

抵押财产折价或者变卖的,应当参照市场价格。

Where the mortgaged property is converted into money or sold off, its market price shall be taken as the reference.

  第四百一十一条 依据本法第三百九十六条规定设定抵押的,抵押财产自下列情形之一发生时确定:

Article 411 Where mortgage is created in accordance with Article 396 of this Code, the mortgaged property shall be determined under any of the following circumstances:

(一)债务履行期限届满,债权未实现;

(1) The creditor's right is not exercised upon the expiration of the term for performing the obligation.

(二)抵押人被宣告破产或者解散;

(2) The mortgagor is declared bankrupt or is dissolved.

(三)当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形;

(3) Any circumstance where mortgage shall be exercised as agreed upon by the parties.

(四)严重影响债权实现的其他情形。

(4) Any other circumstance that seriously affects the exercise of the creditor's right.

  第四百一十二条 债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,致使抵押财产被人民法院依法扣押的,自扣押之日起,抵押权人有权收取该抵押财产的天然孳息或者法定孳息,但是抵押权人未通知应当清偿法定孳息义务人的除外。

Article 412 Where the mortgaged property is detained by a people's court in accordance with law since the debtor fails to pay the due debt or falls under any circumstance where mortgage shall be exercised as agreed upon by the parties, from the date when the property is detained, the mortgagee has the right to collect the natural or legal fruits accrued from the mortgaged property, except that the mortgagee fails to notify the obligor to pay off the legal fruits.

前款规定的孳息应当先充抵收取孳息的费用。

The fruits as mentioned in the preceding paragraph shall first be used to pay the expenses for collecting such fruits.

  第四百一十三条 抵押财产折价或者拍卖、变卖后,其价款超过债权数额的部分归抵押人所有,不足部分由债务人清偿。

Article 413 After the mortgaged property is converted into money, or auctioned or sold off, the part of proceeds therefrom exceeding the amount of claim shall belong to the mortgagor; and if the proceeds are insufficient to cover the claim, the shortfall shall be paid off by the debtor.

  第四百一十四条 同一财产向两个以上债权人抵押的,拍卖、变卖抵押财产所得的价款依照下列规定清偿:

Article 414 Where a same property is mortgaged to two or more creditors, the proceeds from the auction or sell-off of the mortgaged property shall be used for payment according to the following provisions:

(一)抵押权已经登记的,按照登记的时间先后确定清偿顺序;

(1) If mortgage has been registered, payments shall be made in the order of the registration of the mortgage.

(二)抵押权已经登记的先于未登记的受偿;

(2) The claim secured by a registered mortgage shall be satisfied prior to the unregistered ones.

(三)抵押权未登记的,按照债权比例清偿。

(3) For unregistered mortgage, payment shall be made in proportion to the amount of claims.

其他可以登记的担保物权,清偿顺序参照适用前款规定。

The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to the order of payment with respect to any other security interest that may be registered.

  第四百一十五条 同一财产既设立抵押权又设立质权的,拍卖、变卖该财产所得的价款按照登记、交付的时间先后确定清偿顺序。

Article 415 Where both mortgage and pledge are created on a same property, the order of payment made with the proceeds obtained from the auction or sell-off of such a property shall be determined according to the time of registration and delivery.

  第四百一十六条 动产抵押担保的主债权是抵押物的价款,标的物交付后十日内办理抵押登记的,该抵押权人优先于抵押物买受人的其他担保物权人受偿,但是留置权人除外。

Article 416 Where the principal claim secured by mortgage on a movable is the price of the mortgaged property, and mortgage registration is undergone within 10 days after the delivery of the subject matter, the mortgagee has the priority of compensation over other security interest holders of the buyer of the mortgaged property, except the lienor.

  第四百一十七条 建设用地使用权抵押后,该土地上新增的建筑物不属于抵押财产。该建设用地使用权实现抵押权时,应当将该土地上新增的建筑物与建设用地使用权一并处分。但是,新增建筑物所得的价款,抵押权人无权优先受偿。

Article 417 After the right to use land for construction is mortgaged, the new building constructed on the land is not mortgaged property. If the right to use land for construction shall be disposed of so as to exercise mortgage, the new building constructed on the land shall be disposed of together with the right to use land for construction. However, the mortgagee has no priority of compensation made with the proceeds obtained from the new building.

  第四百一十八条 以集体所有土地的使用权依法抵押的,实现抵押权后,未经法定程序,不得改变土地所有权的性质和土地用途。

Article 418 Where the right to use land owned by the collective is mortgaged in accordance with the law, the nature of the land ownership and the land use purpose may not be changed without undergoing statutory procedures after mortgage is exercised.

  第四百一十九条 抵押权人应当在主债权诉讼时效期间行使抵押权;未行使的,人民法院不予保护。

Article 419 The mortgagee shall exercise mortgage within the prescriptive period of the principal claim, failing which the mortgagee will not be protected by the people's court.

第二节 最高额抵押权

Section 2 Maximum Mortgage

  第四百二十条 为担保债务的履行,债务人或者第三人对一定期间内将要连续发生的债权提供担保财产的,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,抵押权人有权在最高债权额限度内就该担保财产优先受偿。

Article 420 Where, for securing the performance of an obligation, the debtor or a third party provides a property as security for the debts to be incurred consecutively within a given period of time, if the debtor fails to pay the due debt or falls under any circumstance where mortgage shall be exercised as agreed upon by the parties, the mortgagee has the priority of compensation made with the mortgaged property to the extent of the maximum amount of claim.

最高额抵押权设立前已经存在的债权,经当事人同意,可以转入最高额抵押担保的债权范围。

A creditor's right that exists before the creation of maximum mortgage may be included in the creditor's rights secured by the maximum mortgage with the consent of the parties.

  第四百二十一条 最高额抵押担保的债权确定前,部分债权转让的,最高额抵押权不得转让,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 421 Where part of the creditor's right is transferred before the creditor's right secured by the maximum mortgage is determined, the maximum mortgage may not be transferred, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

  第四百二十二条 最高额抵押担保的债权确定前,抵押权人与抵押人可以通过协议变更债权确定的期间、债权范围以及最高债权额。但是,变更的内容不得对其他抵押权人产生不利影响。

Article 422 Before the creditor's right secured by the maximum mortgage is determined, the mortgagee and the mortgagor may modify the term for determining the creditor's right, the scope of creditor's right and the maximum amount of claim through agreement, provided that such modification shall not have any adverse effect on any other mortgagee.

  第四百二十三条 有下列情形之一的,抵押权人的债权确定:

Article 423 The creditor's right of the mortgagee is determined under any of the following circumstances:

(一)约定的债权确定期间届满;

(1) The agreed term for determining the creditor's right expires.

(二)没有约定债权确定期间或者约定不明确,抵押权人或者抵押人自最高额抵押权设立之日起满二年后请求确定债权;

(2) In the absence of an agreement on the term for determining the creditor's right or such an agreement is ambiguous, the mortgagee or the mortgagor claims the determination of the creditor's right after the lapse of two years from the date of creation of the maximum mortgage.

(三)新的债权不可能发生;

(3) No new creditor's right will be created.

(四)抵押权人知道或者应当知道抵押财产被查封、扣押;

(4) The mortgagee knows or should have known that the mortgaged property is seized or detained.

(五)债务人、抵押人被宣告破产或者解散;

(5) The debtor or the mortgagor is declared bankrupt or is dissolved.

(六)法律规定债权确定的其他情形。

(6) Any other circumstance provided for by any law where the creditor's right is determined.

  第四百二十四条 最高额抵押权除适用本节规定外,适用本章第一节的有关规定。

Article 424 In addition to the provisions of this Section, the relevant provisions of Section 1 of this Chapter shall apply to maximum mortgage.

第十八章 质权

Chapter XVIII Pledge

第一节 动产质权

Section 1 Pledge of Movables

  第四百二十五条 为担保债务的履行,债务人或者第三人将其动产出质给债权人占有的,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现质权的情形,债权人有权就该动产优先受偿。

Article 425 Where, for securing the performance of an obligation, the debtor or a third party pledges the movable thereof to the creditor for possession, if the debtor fails to pay the due debt or falls under any circumstance where pledge shall be exercised as agreed upon by the parties, the creditor shall have the priority of compensation made from such a movable.

前款规定的债务人或者第三人为出质人,债权人为质权人,交付的动产为质押财产。

For the purposes of the preceding paragraph, the debtor or the third party is the pledgor, the creditor is the pledgee, and the delivered movable is the pledged property.

  第四百二十六条 法律、行政法规禁止转让的动产不得出质。

Article 426 The movables prohibited from transfer by any law or administrative regulation shall not be pledged.

  第四百二十七条 设立质权,当事人应当采用书面形式订立质押合同。

Article 427 To create pledge, the parties shall enter into a pledge contract in a written form.

质押合同一般包括下列条款:

The pledge contract shall generally include the following clauses:

(一)被担保债权的种类和数额;

(1) The type and amount of the secured claim.

(二)债务人履行债务的期限;

(2) The term for the debtor to perform the obligation.

(三)质押财产的名称、数量等情况;

(3) The name, quantity and other conditions of the pledged property.

(四)担保的范围;

(4) The scope of security.

(五)质押财产交付的时间、方式。

(5) The time and methods for the delivery of the pledged property.

  第四百二十八条 质权人在债务履行期限届满前,与出质人约定债务人不履行到期债务时质押财产归债权人所有的,只能依法就质押财产优先受偿。

Article 428 Where, before the expiration of the term for the performance of an obligation, the pledgee agrees with the pledgor that the pledged property shall belong to the creditor if the debtor fails to pay the due debt, the pledgee may only have the priority of compensation made with the pledged property in accordance with the law.

  第四百二十九条 质权自出质人交付质押财产时设立。

Article 429 Pledge is created when the pledged property is delivered by the pledgor.

  第四百三十条 质权人有权收取质押财产的孳息,但是合同另有约定的除外。

Article 430 The pledgee has the right to collect the fruits accrued from the pledged property, except otherwise agreed upon in the contract.

前款规定的孳息应当先充抵收取孳息的费用。

The fruits as mentioned in the preceding paragraph shall first be used to pay the expenses for collecting the fruits.

  第四百三十一条 质权人在质权存续期间,未经出质人同意,擅自使用、处分质押财产,造成出质人损害的,应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 431 Where, during the existence of pledge, the pledgee uses or disposes of the pledged property without the consent of the pledgor, thus causing any damage to the pledgor, the pledgee shall assume compensatory liability.

  第四百三十二条 质权人负有妥善保管质押财产的义务;因保管不善致使质押财产毁损、灭失的,应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 432 The pledgee is obliged to properly keep the pledged property; and shall assume compensatory liability if the pledged property is damaged or lost due to inappropriate safekeeping.

质权人的行为可能使质押财产毁损、灭失的,出质人可以请求质权人将质押财产提存,或者请求提前清偿债务并返还质押财产。

Where any act of the pledgee may cause the damage or loss of the pledged property, the pledgor may request the pledgee to set aside the pledged property, or request the advance payment of the debt and the return of the pledged property.

  第四百三十三条 因不可归责于质权人的事由可能使质押财产毁损或者价值明显减少,足以危害质权人权利的,质权人有权请求出质人提供相应的担保;出质人不提供的,质权人可以拍卖、变卖质押财产,并与出质人协议将拍卖、变卖所得的价款提前清偿债务或者提存。

Article 433 Where any cause not attributable to the fault of the pledgee may result in the damage or an evident decrease of the value of the pledged property, which is sufficient to damage the rights of the pledgee, the pledgee has the right to request the pledgor to provide the corresponding security. If the pledgor refuses to do so, the pledgee may auction or sell off the pledged property, and may enter into an agreement with the pledgor to pay off the debt with the money obtained from auction or sell-off in advance or set aside the proceeds.

  第四百三十四条 质权人在质权存续期间,未经出质人同意转质,造成质押财产毁损、灭失的,应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 434 Where, during the existence of the pledge, the pledgee transfers the property posted as pledge to a third party without the consent of the pledgor, thus causing the damage or loss of the pledged property, the pledgee shall assume compensatory liability.

  第四百三十五条 质权人可以放弃质权。债务人以自己的财产出质,质权人放弃该质权的,其他担保人在质权人丧失优先受偿权益的范围内免除担保责任,但是其他担保人承诺仍然提供担保的除外。

Article 435 The pledgee may waive the pledge. If the debtor pledges the property thereof and the pledgee waives the pledge, other guarantors are exempted from suretyship to the extent that the pledgee forfeits the priority of compensation, unless other guarantors are still committed to the suretyship.

  第四百三十六条 债务人履行债务或者出质人提前清偿所担保的债权的,质权人应当返还质押财产。

Article 436 Where the debtor performs obligations or the pledgor pays off the secured claim in advance, the pledgee shall return the pledged property.

债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现质权的情形,质权人可以与出质人协议以质押财产折价,也可以就拍卖、变卖质押财产所得的价款优先受偿。

Where the debtor fails to pay the due debt or falls under any circumstance where pledge shall be exercised as agreed upon by the parties, the pledgee may enter into an agreement with the pledgor to convert the pledged property into money, or may have the priority of compensation made with the proceeds obtained from the auction or sell-off of the pledged property.

质押财产折价或者变卖的,应当参照市场价格。

Where the pledged property is converted into money or sold off, market price shall be taken as the reference.

  第四百三十七条 出质人可以请求质权人在债务履行期限届满后及时行使质权;质权人不行使的,出质人可以请求人民法院拍卖、变卖质押财产。

Article 437 The pledgor may request the pledgee to exercise the pledge in a timely manner upon the expiration of the term for the performance of the obligation. If the pledgee fails to exercise the pledge, the pledgor may request the people's court to have the pledged property auctioned or sold off.

出质人请求质权人及时行使质权,因质权人怠于行使权利造成出质人损害的,由质权人承担赔偿责任。

Where the pledgor requests the pledgee's exercise of pledge in a timely manner, but the pledgee is slack in exercising the pledge, thus causing any damage to the pledgor, the pledgee shall assume compensatory liability.

  第四百三十八条 质押财产折价或者拍卖、变卖后,其价款超过债权数额的部分归出质人所有,不足部分由债务人清偿。

Article 438 After the pledged property is converted into money, auctioned or sold off, the part of the proceeds therefrom exceeding the amount of the claim shall belong to the pledgor, and if they are insufficient to repay the debt, the shortfall shall be paid off by the debtor.

  第四百三十九条 出质人与质权人可以协议设立最高额质权。

Article 439 The pledgor and the pledgee may create the maximum pledge by agreement.

最高额质权除适用本节有关规定外,参照适用本编第十七章第二节的有关规定。

In addition that the relevant provisions of this Section shall apply to the maximum pledge, the relevant provisions of Section 2, Chapter XVII of this Book shall apply mutatis mutandis.

第二节 权利质权

Section 2 Pledge of Rights

  第四百四十条 债务人或者第三人有权处分的下列权利可以出质:

Article 440 The following rights that the debtor or a third party is entitled to dispose of may be pledged:

(一)汇票、本票、支票;

(1) Bills of exchange, promissory notes and checks.

(二)债券、存款单;

(2) Bonds and certificates of deposit.

(三)仓单、提单;

(3) Warehouse receipts and bills of lading.

(四)可以转让的基金份额、股权;

(4) Transferable fund shares and stock rights.

(五)可以转让的注册商标专用权、专利权、著作权等知识产权中的财产权;

(5) Transferable property rights among intellectual property rights, such as the right to the exclusive use of registered trademarks, patents and copyrights.

(六)现有的以及将有的应收账款;

(6) Existing and anticipated accounts receivable.

(七)法律、行政法规规定可以出质的其他财产权利。

(7) Other property rights which may be pledged as provided for by laws and administrative regulations.

  第四百四十一条 以汇票、本票、支票、债券、存款单、仓单、提单出质的,质权自权利凭证交付质权人时设立;没有权利凭证的,质权自办理出质登记时设立。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。

Article 441 Where a bill of exchange, promissory note, check, bond, certificate of deposit, warehouse receipt or bill of lading is pledged, pledge is created at the time when the right certificate is delivered to the pledgee; in the absence of such a right certificate, pledge is created at the time when pledge is registered, except as otherwise provided for by any law.

  第四百四十二条 汇票、本票、支票、债券、存款单、仓单、提单的兑现日期或者提货日期先于主债权到期的,质权人可以兑现或者提货,并与出质人协议将兑现的价款或者提取的货物提前清偿债务或者提存。

Article 442 Where the date of payment or of delivery of goods in respect of a pledged bill of exchange, promissory note, check, bond, certificate of deposit, warehouse receipt or bill of lading is matured prior to the date of maturity of the principal claim, the pledgee may accept the payment or the goods delivered, and may enter into an agreement with the pledgor to use the payment or the goods accepted to pay off the debt in advance or set aside them.

  第四百四十三条 以基金份额、股权出质的,质权自办理出质登记时设立。

Article 443 Where fund shares or stock rights are pledged, pledge is created at the time when pledge is registered.

基金份额、股权出质后,不得转让,但是出质人与质权人协商同意的除外。出质人转让基金份额、股权所得的价款,应当向质权人提前清偿债务或者提存。

Fund shares or stock rights cannot be transferred after they are pledged, except as otherwise agreed upon by the pledgor and the pledgee upon consultation. The proceeds obtained by the pledgor from the transfer of fund shares or stock rights shall be used to pay off the debt to the pledgee in advance or be set aside.

  第四百四十四条 以注册商标专用权、专利权、著作权等知识产权中的财产权出质的,质权自办理出质登记时设立。

Article 444 Where property rights among intellectual property rights, such as the right to the exclusive use of registered trademarks, patents and copyrights, are pledged, pledge is created at the time when pledge is registered.

知识产权中的财产权出质后,出质人不得转让或者许可他人使用,但是出质人与质权人协商同意的除外。出质人转让或者许可他人使用出质的知识产权中的财产权所得的价款,应当向质权人提前清偿债务或者提存。

The pledgor may not transfer or license another's use of property rights among intellectual property rights after they are pledged, unless it is agreed upon by the pledgor and the pledgee through consultation. The proceeds obtained by the pledgor from the transfer or licensing of another's use of property rights among intellectual property rights shall be used to pay off the debt to the pledgee in advance or be set aside.

  第四百四十五条 以应收账款出质的,质权自办理出质登记时设立。

Article 445 Where accounts receivable are pledged, pledge is created at the time when pledge is registered.

应收账款出质后,不得转让,但是出质人与质权人协商同意的除外。出质人转让应收账款所得的价款,应当向质权人提前清偿债务或者提存。

The pledged accounts receivable may not be transferred, unless it is agreed upon by the pledgor and the pledgee through consultation. The proceeds obtained by the pledgor from the transfer of the accounts receivable shall be used to pay off the debt to the pledgee in advance or be set aside.

  第四百四十六条 权利质权除适用本节规定外,适用本章第一节的有关规定。

Article 446 In addition to the provisions of this Section, the relevant provisions of Section 1 of this Chapter shall apply to the pledge of rights.

第十九章 留置权

Chapter XIX Lien

  第四百四十七条 债务人不履行到期债务,债权人可以留置已经合法占有的债务人的动产,并有权就该动产优先受偿。

Article 447 Where the debtor fails to pay the due debt, the creditor may exercise a lien over the legally possessed movable of the debtor, and has the priority of compensation made with such a movable.

前款规定的债权人为留置权人,占有的动产为留置财产。

For the purposes of the preceding paragraph, the creditor is the lienor, and the possessed movable is the property under lien.

  第四百四十八条 债权人留置的动产,应当与债权属于同一法律关系,但是企业之间留置的除外。

Article 448 The movable on which the creditor exercises a lien shall fall under the same legal relationship with the creditor's right, except in the case of a lien between enterprises.

  第四百四十九条 法律规定或者当事人约定不得留置的动产,不得留置。

Article 449 No lien shall be exercised over the movable if it is prohibited by any law or the parties agree not to do so.

  第四百五十条 留置财产为可分物的,留置财产的价值应当相当于债务的金额。

Article 450 Where the property under lien is divisible, the value of the property under lien shall be equivalent to the amount of the debt.

  第四百五十一条 留置权人负有妥善保管留置财产的义务;因保管不善致使留置财产毁损、灭失的,应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 451 The lienor is obliged to properly keep the property under lien; and shall assume compensatory liability if the property under lien is damaged or lost due to inappropriate safekeeping.

  第四百五十二条 留置权人有权收取留置财产的孳息。

Article 452 The lienor has the right to collect the fruits accrued from the property under lien.

前款规定的孳息应当先充抵收取孳息的费用。

Fruits as mentioned in the preceding paragraph shall first be used to pay the expenses for collecting the fruits.

  第四百五十三条 留置权人与债务人应当约定留置财产后的债务履行期限;没有约定或者约定不明确的,留置权人应当给债务人六十日以上履行债务的期限,但是鲜活易腐等不易保管的动产除外。债务人逾期未履行的,留置权人可以与债务人协议以留置财产折价,也可以就拍卖、变卖留置财产所得的价款优先受偿。

Article 453 The lienor and the debtor shall agree on the term for the performance of the obligation after lien is exercised on the property. In the absence of such an agreement or if such an agreement is ambiguous, the lienor shall allow the debtor to perform the obligation within the term of 60 days or longer, except that the movable is fresh, perishable or hard to keep. If the debtor fails to perform the obligation within the prescribed time limit, the lienor may agree upon with the debtor to have the property under lien converted into money, or may have the priority of compensation made from the auction or sell-off of the property.

留置财产折价或者变卖的,应当参照市场价格。

Where the property under lien is converted into money or sold off, its market price shall be taken as the reference.

  第四百五十四条 债务人可以请求留置权人在债务履行期限届满后行使留置权;留置权人不行使的,债务人可以请求人民法院拍卖、变卖留置财产。

Article 454 The debtor may claim the lienor's exercise of lien after the expiration of the term for the performance of obligation. If the lienor fails to exercise the lien, the debtor may request a people's court to have the property under lien auctioned or sold off.

  第四百五十五条 留置财产折价或者拍卖、变卖后,其价款超过债权数额的部分归债务人所有,不足部分由债务人清偿。

Article 455 After the property under lien is converted into money, auctioned or sold off, the part of proceeds therefrom exceeding the amount of claim shall belong to the debtor, and if they are insufficient to pay the debt, the shortfall shall be paid off by the debtor.

  第四百五十六条 同一动产上已经设立抵押权或者质权,该动产又被留置的,留置权人优先受偿。

Article 456 Where a lien is exercised on a movable already subject to mortgage or pledge, the lienor shall have the priority of compensation.

  第四百五十七条 留置权人对留置财产丧失占有或者留置权人接受债务人另行提供担保的,留置权消灭。

Article 457 Where the lienor forfeits the possession of the property under lien or accepts other security separately provided by the debtor, lien shall be extinguished.

第五分编 占有

Title Five Possession

第二十章 占有

Chapter XX Possession

  第四百五十八条 基于合同关系等产生的占有,有关不动产或者动产的使用、收益、违约责任等,按照合同约定;合同没有约定或者约定不明确的,依照有关法律规定。

Article 458 With respect to possession arising from contractual relations, among others, the use of the relevant immovable or movable, the proceeds therefrom and liability for the breach of contract, among others, shall be subject to those agreed upon in the contract. In the absence of such an agreement in the contract or if such an agreement is ambiguous, the provisions of relevant laws shall apply.

  第四百五十九条 占有人因使用占有的不动产或者动产,致使该不动产或者动产受到损害的,恶意占有人应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 459 Where the possessor causes any damage to the possessed immovable or movable due to the use thereof, the possessor in bad faith shall assume compensatory liability.

  第四百六十条 不动产或者动产被占有人占有的,权利人可以请求返还原物及其孳息;但是,应当支付善意占有人因维护该不动产或者动产支出的必要费用。

Article 460 Where an immovable or movable is possessed by the possessor, the right holder may claim the return of the original property and the fruits therefrom; however, the holder shall pay necessary expenses arising from the maintenance of the immovable or movable to the possessor in good faith.

  第四百六十一条 占有的不动产或者动产毁损、灭失,该不动产或者动产的权利人请求赔偿的,占有人应当将因毁损、灭失取得的保险金、赔偿金或者补偿金等返还给权利人;权利人的损害未得到足够弥补的,恶意占有人还应当赔偿损失。

Article 461 Where a possessed immovable or movable is damaged or lost, and the right holder of such an immovable or movable claims compensation, the possessor shall return the insurance money, compensatory damages, or indemnity, among others, as compensation for the damage or loss, to the right holder. If the damage to the right holder is not fully covered thereby, the possessor in bad faith shall also compensate for the uncovered part.

  第四百六十二条 占有的不动产或者动产被侵占的,占有人有权请求返还原物;对妨害占有的行为,占有人有权请求排除妨害或者消除危险;因侵占或者妨害造成损害的,占有人有权依法请求损害赔偿。

Article 462 Where a possessed immovable or movable is encroached upon, the possessor has the right to file a claim for return of the original property. If possession is interfered with, the possessor has the right to file a claim for removal of interference or elimination of danger. If any damage is caused by encroachment or interference, the possessor has the right to claim damages in accordance with the law.

占有人返还原物的请求权,自侵占发生之日起一年内未行使的,该请求权消灭。

Where the possessor fails to exercise the right to claim the return of the original property within one year from the date of encroachment, such a right of claim shall be extinguished.

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