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中华人民共和国民法典 合同编(上)(中英对照)
2020-07-07

第三编 合同

Book Three Contracts

第一分编 通则

Title One General Provisions

第一章 一般规定

Chapter I General Rules

  第四百六十三条 本编调整因合同产生的民事关系。

Article 463 This Book regulates the civil relations arising from contracts.

  第四百六十四条 合同是民事主体之间设立、变更、终止民事法律关系的协议。

Article 464 A contract refers to an agreement between the parties to civil legal relations for the establishment, modification, and termination of civil legal relations.

婚姻、收养、监护等有关身份关系的协议,适用有关该身份关系的法律规定;没有规定的,可以根据其性质参照适用本编规定。

Agreements concerning personal relations such as marriage, adoption, and guardianship shall be governed by the provisions of laws on the relevant personal relations; or absent such provisions, this Book may apply mutatis mutandis according to their nature.

  第四百六十五条 依法成立的合同,受法律保护。

Article 465 A contract legally formed shall be protected by the law.

依法成立的合同,仅对当事人具有法律约束力,但是法律另有规定的除外。

A contract legally formed shall be legally binding only on the parties, except as otherwise provided by the law.

  第四百六十六条 当事人对合同条款的理解有争议的,应当依据本法第一百四十二条第一款的规定,确定争议条款的含义。

Article 466 If any dispute arises between the parties over the understanding of any clause of the contract, the meaning of the clause in dispute shall be determined in accordance with paragraph 1, Article 142 of this Code.

合同文本采用两种以上文字订立并约定具有同等效力的,对各文本使用的词句推定具有相同含义。各文本使用的词句不一致的,应当根据合同的相关条款、性质、目的以及诚信原则等予以解释。

Where a contract is in two or more languages and it is agreed that all versions are equally authentic, the words and sentences in each version are construed to have the same meaning. In case of any discrepancy in the words or sentences used in the different language versions, they shall be construed in light of the relevant terms, nature and purpose of the contract and the principle of good faith.

  第四百六十七条 本法或者其他法律没有明文规定的合同,适用本编通则的规定,并可以参照适用本编或者其他法律最相类似合同的规定。

Article 467 For a contract not expressly provided for in this Code or any other law, the General Provisions of this Book shall apply, and the provisions on the most similar contracts in this Book or any other law may apply mutatis mutandis.

在中华人民共和国境内履行的中外合资经营企业合同、中外合作经营企业合同、中外合作勘探开发自然资源合同,适用中华人民共和国法律。

The law of the People's Republic of China shall apply to a contract for a Chinese-foreign equity joint venture, a contract for a Chinese-foreign contractual joint venture, or a contract for Chinese-foreign cooperative exploration and exploitation of natural resources performed in the People's Republic of China

  第四百六十八条 非因合同产生的债权债务关系,适用有关该债权债务关系的法律规定;没有规定的,适用本编通则的有关规定,但是根据其性质不能适用的除外。

Article 468 For a creditor-debtor relation not arising from a contract, the provisions of the law on such a creditor-debtor relation shall apply; or absent such provisions, the relevant provisions of the General Provisions of this Book shall apply, unless its nature precludes the application.

第二章 合同的订立

Chapter II Contracting

  第四百六十九条 当事人订立合同,可以采用书面形式、口头形式或者其他形式。

Article 469 The parties may enter into a contract in written, oral, or any other form.

书面形式是合同书、信件、电报、电传、传真等可以有形地表现所载内容的形式。

"Written form" means a written contract, letter, telegram, telex, facsimile, or any other form that can tangibly express the contents thereof.

以电子数据交换、电子邮件等方式能够有形地表现所载内容,并可以随时调取查用的数据电文,视为书面形式。

A data message that tangibly expresses the contents thereof by electronic data interchange, e-mail, or any other means and is readily available for access and inspection shall be treated as a written form.

  第四百七十条 合同的内容由当事人约定,一般包括下列条款:

Article 470 The contents of a contract shall be agreed upon by the parties, and generally include the following clauses:

(一)当事人的姓名或者名称和住所;

(1) Names and domiciles of the parties.

(二)标的;

(2) Subject matter.

(三)数量;

(3) Quantity.

(四)质量;

(4) Quality.

(五)价款或者报酬;

(5) Price or remuneration.

(六)履行期限、地点和方式;

(6) Time limit, place and method of performance.

(七)违约责任;

(7) Liability for breach of contract.

(八)解决争议的方法。

(8) Method to settle disputes.

当事人可以参照各类合同的示范文本订立合同。

The parties may enter into a contract by referring to the model texts of various contracts.

  第四百七十一条 当事人订立合同,可以采取要约、承诺方式或者其他方式。

Article 471 The parties may enter into a contract by offer and acceptance or any other means.

  第四百七十二条 要约是希望与他人订立合同的意思表示,该意思表示应当符合下列条件:

Article 472 An offer is a declaration of will to contract with another person, and the declaration of will shall meet the following conditions:

(一)内容具体确定;

(1) Its contents shall be specific and definite.

(二)表明经受要约人承诺,要约人即受该意思表示约束。

(2) It indicates that the offeror will be bound by the declaration of will in case of acceptance by the offeree.

  第四百七十三条 要约邀请是希望他人向自己发出要约的表示。拍卖公告、招标公告、招股说明书、债券募集办法、基金招募说明书、商业广告和宣传、寄送的价目表等为要约邀请。

Article 473 An invitation for offer is a declaration to invite other parties to make offers to the inviter. Auction announcements, bidding announcements, stock prospectuses, bond prospectuses, fund prospectuses, commercial advertisements and publicity, mailed price lists, etc. are invitations for offer.

商业广告和宣传的内容符合要约条件的,构成要约。

Where the contents of commercial advertisements and publicity meet the conditions for an offer, they constitute an offer.

  第四百七十四条 要约生效的时间适用本法第一百三十七条的规定。

Article 474 The effective time of an offer shall be governed by the provisions of Article 137 of this Code.

  第四百七十五条 要约可以撤回。要约的撤回适用本法第一百四十一条的规定。

Article 475 An offer may be withdrawn. The withdrawal of an offer shall be governed by the provisions of Article 141 of this Code.

  第四百七十六条 要约可以撤销,但是有下列情形之一的除外:

Article 476 An offer may be revoked, except under any of the following circumstances:

(一)要约人以确定承诺期限或者其他形式明示要约不可撤销;

(1) The offeror explicitly states, by fixing a time limit for acceptance or otherwise, that the offer is irrevocable.

(二)受要约人有理由认为要约是不可撤销的,并已经为履行合同做了合理准备工作。

(2) The offeree has reasons to believe that the offer is irrevocable, and has made reasonable preparation for performing the contact.

  第四百七十七条 撤销要约的意思表示以对话方式作出的,该意思表示的内容应当在受要约人作出承诺之前为受要约人所知道;撤销要约的意思表示以非对话方式作出的,应当在受要约人作出承诺之前到达受要约人。

Article 477 Where a declaration of will to revoke an offer is made by means of dialog, the contents of the declaration of will shall come to the offeree's knowledge before the offeree accepts; and a declaration of will to revoke an offer made by means other than dialog shall reach the offeree before the offeree accepts.

  第四百七十八条 有下列情形之一的,要约失效:

Article 478 An offer lapses under any of the following circumstances:

(一)要约被拒绝;

(1) The offer is rejected.

(二)要约被依法撤销;

(2) The offer is legally revoked.

(三)承诺期限届满,受要约人未作出承诺;

(3) The offeree fails to accept before the expiration of the time limit for acceptance.

(四)受要约人对要约的内容作出实质性变更。

(4) The offeree makes a substantial modification to the contents of the offer.

  第四百七十九条 承诺是受要约人同意要约的意思表示。

Article 479 An acceptance is the declaration of will by the offeree to assent to the offer.

  第四百八十条 承诺应当以通知的方式作出;但是,根据交易习惯或者要约表明可以通过行为作出承诺的除外。

Article 480 An acceptance shall be made in the form of a notice, except where acceptance may be made by an act according to the usage of trade or as expressed in the offer.

  第四百八十一条 承诺应当在要约确定的期限内到达要约人。

Article 481 An acceptance shall reach the offeror within the time limit prescribed in the offer.

要约没有确定承诺期限的,承诺应当依照下列规定到达:

Where no time limit is prescribed in the offer, the acceptance shall reach the offeror in accordance with the following provisions:

(一)要约以对话方式作出的,应当即时作出承诺;

(1) If the offer is made in dialog, the acceptance shall be made immediately.

(二)要约以非对话方式作出的,承诺应当在合理期限内到达。

(2) If the offer is made in forms other than a dialog, the acceptance shall reach the offeror within a reasonable time limit.

  第四百八十二条 要约以信件或者电报作出的,承诺期限自信件载明的日期或者电报交发之日开始计算。信件未载明日期的,自投寄该信件的邮戳日期开始计算。要约以电话、传真、电子邮件等快速通讯方式作出的,承诺期限自要约到达受要约人时开始计算。

Article 482 Where an offer is made by letter or telegram, the time limit for acceptance shall accrue from the date shown in the letter or from the date on which the telegram is handed in for dispatch. If no such date is shown in the letter, it shall accrue from the postmark date on the envelope. Where an offer is made by means of instantaneous communication, such as telephone, facsimile or email, the time limit for acceptance shall accrue from the moment that the offer reaches the offeree.

  第四百八十三条 承诺生效时合同成立,但是法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 483 A contract is formed when the acceptance becomes effective, except as otherwise provided by the law or agreed by the parties.

  第四百八十四条 以通知方式作出的承诺,生效的时间适用本法第一百三十七条的规定。

Article 484 The effective time of an acceptance made in the form of a notice shall be governed by the provisions of Article 137 of this Code.

承诺不需要通知的,根据交易习惯或者要约的要求作出承诺的行为时生效。

If notice of acceptance is not required, the acceptance shall become effective when an act of acceptance is performed according to the usage of trade or as required in the offer.

  第四百八十五条 承诺可以撤回。承诺的撤回适用本法第一百四十一条的规定。

Article 485 An acceptance may be withdrawn. The withdrawal of an acceptance shall be governed by the provisions of Article 141 of this Code.

  第四百八十六条 受要约人超过承诺期限发出承诺,或者在承诺期限内发出承诺,按照通常情形不能及时到达要约人的,为新要约;但是,要约人及时通知受要约人该承诺有效的除外。

Article 486 Where an offeree makes an acceptance beyond the time limit for acceptance, or makes an acceptance within the time limit for acceptance which is unable to reach the offeror in a timely manner under normal circumstances, the acceptance shall be a new offer, unless the offeror notifies in a timely manner the offeree that the acceptance is effective.

  第四百八十七条 受要约人在承诺期限内发出承诺,按照通常情形能够及时到达要约人,但是因其他原因致使承诺到达要约人时超过承诺期限的,除要约人及时通知受要约人因承诺超过期限不接受该承诺外,该承诺有效。

Article 487 Where the offeree makes an acceptance within the time limit specified for acceptance, and under normal circumstances the acceptance would have reached the offeror in a timely manner, but for other reasons the acceptance reaches the offeror after the time limit for acceptance has expired, such acceptance shall be effective, unless the offeror notifies the offeree in a timely manner that it does not accept the acceptance due to the failure of the acceptance to arrive within the time limit.

  第四百八十八条 承诺的内容应当与要约的内容一致。受要约人对要约的内容作出实质性变更的,为新要约。有关合同标的、数量、质量、价款或者报酬、履行期限、履行地点和方式、违约责任和解决争议方法等的变更,是对要约内容的实质性变更。

Article 488 The contents of an acceptance shall correspond to those of the offer. If the offeree makes a substantial modification to the contents of the offer, the acceptance shall constitute a new offer. The modification relating to the subject matter, quality, quantity, price or remuneration, time or place or method of performance, liabilities for breach of contract, method of dispute resolution, etc. shall constitute the substantial modification of an offer.

  第四百八十九条 承诺对要约的内容作出非实质性变更的,除要约人及时表示反对或者要约表明承诺不得对要约的内容作出任何变更外,该承诺有效,合同的内容以承诺的内容为准。

Article 489 Where the acceptance does not substantially modifies the contents of the offer, it shall be effective, and the contents of the contract shall be subject to those of the acceptance, except as rejected in a timely manner by the offeror or indicated in the offer that an acceptance may not modify the offer at all.

  第四百九十条 当事人采用合同书形式订立合同的,自当事人均签名、盖章或者按指印时合同成立。在签名、盖章或者按指印之前,当事人一方已经履行主要义务,对方接受时,该合同成立。

Article 490 Where the parties enter into a contract in the form of a written contract, the contract is formed when each party affixes its signature, seal, or fingerprint. If a party has performed its principal obligation before the signature, seal or fingerprint is affixed, the contract is formed when the other party accepts the performance.

法律、行政法规规定或者当事人约定合同应当采用书面形式订立,当事人未采用书面形式但是一方已经履行主要义务,对方接受时,该合同成立。

If any law or administrative regulation requires that or the parties agrees that a contract should be entered into in written form, but the parties fail to enter into the contract in written form and one party has performed the principal obligation, the contract is formed when the other party accepts the performance.

  第四百九十一条 当事人采用信件、数据电文等形式订立合同要求签订确认书的,签订确认书时合同成立。

Article 491 Where the parties enter into a contract by letter, data message, or any other form and require a written confirmation to be signed, the contract is formed when the written confirmation is signed.

当事人一方通过互联网等信息网络发布的商品或者服务信息符合要约条件的,对方选择该商品或者服务并提交订单成功时合同成立,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

If the information on goods or service released by one party on an information network such as the Internet meets the conditions for an offer, the contract is formed when the other party selects the goods or service and successfully submits the order, unless the parties agree otherwise.

  第四百九十二条 承诺生效的地点为合同成立的地点。

Article 492 The place of effectiveness of an acceptance shall be the place of the formation of the contract.

采用数据电文形式订立合同的,收件人的主营业地为合同成立的地点;没有主营业地的,其住所地为合同成立的地点。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。

In the case of contracting in the form of a data message, the place of formation of the contract shall be the main business place of the recipient, or absent a main business place, the place of its domicile, unless the parties agree otherwise.

  第四百九十三条 当事人采用合同书形式订立合同的,最后签名、盖章或者按指印的地点为合同成立的地点,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 493 Where the parties enter into a contract in the form of a written contract, the place of formation of the contract shall be the last place where the signature, seal, or fingerprint is affixed, unless the parties agree otherwise.

  第四百九十四条 国家根据抢险救灾、疫情防控或者其他需要下达国家订货任务、指令性任务的,有关民事主体之间应当依照有关法律、行政法规规定的权利和义务订立合同。

Article 494 Where the state has issued a state purchasing order or a mandatory plan as needed for emergency rescue, disaster relief, epidemic containment, etc., the relevant parties to civil legal relations shall enter into a contract in accordance with the rights and obligations as provided by the relevant laws and administrative regulations.

依照法律、行政法规的规定负有发出要约义务的当事人,应当及时发出合理的要约。

A party with an obligation to make an offer under laws and administrative regulations shall, in a timely manner, make a reasonable offer.

依照法律、行政法规的规定负有作出承诺义务的当事人,不得拒绝对方合理的订立合同要求。

A party with an obligation to make an acceptance under laws and administrative regulations shall not reject the reasonable request for contracting from the other party.

  第四百九十五条 当事人约定在将来一定期限内订立合同的认购书、订购书、预订书等,构成预约合同。

Article 495 A subscription order, purchase order, pre-order, etc., under which the parties agree to enter into a contract within a certain time limit in the future shall constitute a preliminary agreement.

当事人一方不履行预约合同约定的订立合同义务的,对方可以请求其承担预约合同的违约责任。

If one party fails to perform the obligation to contract as agreed in the preliminary agreement, the other party may claim liability of the party for breach of the preliminary agreement.

  第四百九十六条 格式条款是当事人为了重复使用而预先拟定,并在订立合同时未与对方协商的条款。

Article 496 Standard terms are terms drawn up by one party in advance for repeated use and not negotiated with the other party at the time of contracting.

采用格式条款订立合同的,提供格式条款的一方应当遵循公平原则确定当事人之间的权利和义务,并采取合理的方式提示对方注意免除或者减轻其责任等与对方有重大利害关系的条款,按照对方的要求,对该条款予以说明。提供格式条款的一方未履行提示或者说明义务,致使对方没有注意或者理解与其有重大利害关系的条款的,对方可以主张该条款不成为合同的内容。

Where standard terms are adopted for contracting, the party furnishing the standard terms shall define the rights and obligations between the parties under the principle of fairness, remind in a reasonable manner the other party to note the terms excluding or limiting the liability of the party furnishing the standard terms or otherwise related to the material interest of the other party, and explain the terms upon request of the other party. If the party furnishing the standard terms fails to perform the reminding or explanation obligation, resulting in the other party failing to note or understand the terms in which it has a material interest, the other party may argue that the terms are not a part of the contract.

  第四百九十七条 有下列情形之一的,该格式条款无效:

Article 497 Under any of the following circumstances, standard terms shall be void:

(一)具有本法第一编第六章第三节和本法第五百零六条规定的无效情形;

(1) Under the voidness circumstances set forth in Section 3, Chapter VI, Book One of this Code and Article 506 of this Code.

(二)提供格式条款一方不合理地免除或者减轻其责任、加重对方责任、限制对方主要权利;

(2) The party furnishing the standard terms unreasonably excludes or limits its liability, aggravates the liability of the other party, or restricts the main rights of the other party.

(三)提供格式条款一方排除对方主要权利。

(3) The party furnishing the standard terms excludes the main rights of the other party.

  第四百九十八条 对格式条款的理解发生争议的,应当按照通常理解予以解释。对格式条款有两种以上解释的,应当作出不利于提供格式条款一方的解释。格式条款和非格式条款不一致的,应当采用非格式条款。

Article 498 If a dispute over the understanding of standard terms occurs, interpretation shall be made in accordance with common understanding. Where there are two or more kinds of interpretation, an interpretation unfavorable to the party furnishing the standard terms shall prevail. Where the standard terms are inconsistent with non-standard terms, the latter shall prevail.

  第四百九十九条 悬赏人以公开方式声明对完成特定行为的人支付报酬的,完成该行为的人可以请求其支付。

Article 499 Where an offeror of a reward states in a public manner that remuneration will be paid to a person who performs a specific act, the person who has so performed may request the offeror to make the payment.

  第五百条 当事人在订立合同过程中有下列情形之一,造成对方损失的,应当承担赔偿责任:

Article 500 A party shall be liable in damages if it has caused losses to the other party under any of the following circumstances in contracting:

(一)假借订立合同,恶意进行磋商;

(1) Pretending to contract, and negotiating in bad faith.

(二)故意隐瞒与订立合同有关的重要事实或者提供虚假情况;

(2) Deliberately concealing important facts relating to contracting or providing false information.

(三)有其他违背诚信原则的行为。

(3) Performing other acts which violate the principle of good faith.

  第五百零一条 当事人在订立合同过程中知悉的商业秘密或者其他应当保密的信息,无论合同是否成立,不得泄露或者不正当地使用;泄露、不正当地使用该商业秘密或者信息,造成对方损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 501 A trade secret or any other confidential information that the parties have learned in contracting shall not be disclosed or improperly used, no matter the contract is formed or not; and if the party discloses or improperly uses such trade secret or information, causing loss to the other party, it shall be liable in damages.

第三章 合同的效力

Chapter III Validity of Contracts

  第五百零二条 依法成立的合同,自成立时生效,但是法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 502 A contract legally formed shall become effective upon its formation, except as otherwise provided by the law or agreed by the parties.

依照法律、行政法规的规定,合同应当办理批准等手续的,依照其规定。未办理批准等手续影响合同生效的,不影响合同中履行报批等义务条款以及相关条款的效力。应当办理申请批准等手续的当事人未履行义务的,对方可以请求其承担违反该义务的责任。

With regard to contracts that are subject to approval as stipulated by relevant laws or administrative regulations, the provisions thereof shall be followed. If the approval and other procedures fail to be performed, precluding the contract from becoming effective, the validity of the terms regarding obligations such as the obligation to apply for approval and related terms of the contract is not affected. If the party obligated to apply for approval and undergo other procedures fails to perform the obligation, the other party may claim liability of the party for breach of the obligation.

依照法律、行政法规的规定,合同的变更、转让、解除等情形应当办理批准等手续的,适用前款规定。

If any law or administrative regulation requires that the modification, assignment, rescission, and other circumstances of a contract be subject to approval and other procedures, the provisions of the preceding paragraph shall apply.

  第五百零三条 无权代理人以被代理人的名义订立合同,被代理人已经开始履行合同义务或者接受相对人履行的,视为对合同的追认。

Article 503 Where an agent without authority enters into a contract in the name of the principal, and the principal commences to perform contractual obligations or accepts the performance from the other party, the principal shall be treated as having ratified the contract.

  第五百零四条 法人的法定代表人或者非法人组织的负责人超越权限订立的合同,除相对人知道或者应当知道其超越权限外,该代表行为有效,订立的合同对法人或者非法人组织发生效力。

Article 504 Where the legal representative of a legal person or the person in charge of an unincorporated organization enters into a contract ultra vires, the representation shall be effective, and the contract shall be effective against the legal person or unincorporated organization, unless the other party knows or should have known that he or she acts ultra vires.

  第五百零五条 当事人超越经营范围订立的合同的效力,应当依照本法第一编第六章第三节和本编的有关规定确定,不得仅以超越经营范围确认合同无效。

Article 505 The validity of a contract entered into by a party beyond its scope of business shall be determined in accordance with the relevant provisions of Section 3, Chapter VI, Book One of this Code and this Book, and the contract shall not be determined as void only on the grounds that it is entered into beyond the scope of business.

  第五百零六条 合同中的下列免责条款无效:

Article 506 The following exception clauses in a contract shall be void:

(一)造成对方人身损害的;

(1) Those that cause personal damage to the other party.

(二)因故意或者重大过失造成对方财产损失的。

(2) Those that cause property damage to the other party intentionally or in gross negligence.

  第五百零七条 合同不生效、无效、被撤销或者终止的,不影响合同中有关解决争议方法的条款的效力。

Article 507 Where a contract is not effective yet or is null and void, revoked or terminated, it shall not affect the validity of the dispute settlement clause of the contract.

  第五百零八条 本编对合同的效力没有规定的,适用本法第一编第六章的有关规定。

Article 508 Where this Book is silent on the validity of contracts, the relevant provisions of Chapter VI, Book One of this Code shall apply.

第四章 合同的履行

Chapter IV Performance of Contracts

  第五百零九条 当事人应当按照约定全面履行自己的义务。

Article 509 Each party shall fully perform its own obligations as agreed.

当事人应当遵循诚信原则,根据合同的性质、目的和交易习惯履行通知、协助、保密等义务。

The parties shall abide by the principle of good faith, and perform obligations of notification, assistance, confidentiality, etc. in accordance with the nature and purpose of the contract and the usage of trade.

当事人在履行合同过程中,应当避免浪费资源、污染环境和破坏生态。

In performing a contract, the parties shall avoid wasting resources, polluting the environment, and compromising ecology.

  第五百一十条 合同生效后,当事人就质量、价款或者报酬、履行地点等内容没有约定或者约定不明确的,可以协议补充;不能达成补充协议的,按照合同相关条款或者交易习惯确定。

Article 510 Where, after the contract becomes effective, there is no agreement in the contract between the parties on such content as quality, price or remuneration, place of performance etc., or such agreement is ambiguous, the parties may agree upon supplementary terms through consultation; if a supplementary agreement cannot be reached, such terms shall be determined in accordance with the relevant provisions of the contract or usage of trade.

  第五百一十一条 当事人就有关合同内容约定不明确,依据前条规定仍不能确定的,适用下列规定:

Article 511 Where certain content agreed upon by the parties in the contract is ambiguous and cannot be determined in accordance with the provisions in the preceding article, the following provisions shall apply:

(一)质量要求不明确的,按照强制性国家标准履行;没有强制性国家标准的,按照推荐性国家标准履行;没有推荐性国家标准的,按照行业标准履行;没有国家标准、行业标准的,按照通常标准或者符合合同目的的特定标准履行。

(1) If quality requirement is not clear, performance shall be rendered in accordance with the state mandatory standard; absent any state mandatory standard, performance shall be rendered in accordance with the state voluntary standard; absent any state voluntary standard, performance shall be rendered in accordance with the industry voluntary standard; or absent any state or industry standard, performance shall be rendered in accordance with the customary standard or any particular standard consistent with the purpose of the contract.

(二)价款或者报酬不明确的,按照订立合同时履行地的市场价格履行;依法应当执行政府定价或者政府指导价的,依照规定履行。

(2) If price or remuneration is not clear, performance shall be in accordance with the prevailing market price at the place of performance at the time the contract was concluded, and if adoption of a price set by the government or based on government issued pricing guidelines is required by law, such requirement applies.

(三)履行地点不明确,给付货币的,在接受货币一方所在地履行;交付不动产的,在不动产所在地履行;其他标的,在履行义务一方所在地履行。

(3) When the place of performance is not clear, if the obligation is payment of money, performance shall be at the place where the payee is located; if the obligation is delivery of an immovable, performance shall be at the place where the immovable is located; for any other subject matter, performance shall be effected at the place where the party performing the obligations is located.

(四)履行期限不明确的,债务人可以随时履行,债权人也可以随时请求履行,但是应当给对方必要的准备时间。

(4) If the time limit for performance is not clear, the creditor may perform, and the debtor may request performance, at any time, provided that the other party shall be given the time required for preparation.

(五)履行方式不明确的,按照有利于实现合同目的的方式履行。

(5) If the method of performance is not clear, performance shall be rendered in a manner which is conducive to realizing the purpose of the contract.

(六)履行费用的负担不明确的,由履行义务一方负担;因债权人原因增加的履行费用,由债权人负担。

(6) If the apportionment of the expenses of performance is not clear, the party performing the obligations shall bear the expenses; and any additional expenses of performance incurred because of the creditor shall be borne by the creditor.

  第五百一十二条 通过互联网等信息网络订立的电子合同的标的为交付商品并采用快递物流方式交付的,收货人的签收时间为交付时间。电子合同的标的为提供服务的,生成的电子凭证或者实物凭证中载明的时间为提供服务时间;前述凭证没有载明时间或者载明时间与实际提供服务时间不一致的,以实际提供服务的时间为准。

Article 512 Where the subject matter of an electronic contract entered into through an information network such as the Internet is to deliver goods, and the delivery is made by means of express shipping service, the time of delivery shall be the time when the consignee acknowledges receipt. If the subject matter of an electronic contract is to provide services, the time of providing services shall be the time specified in the generated electronic document or paper document; or if the said document specifies no time, or the specified time is inconsistent with the time of actually providing the services, the time of actually providing the services shall prevail.

电子合同的标的物为采用在线传输方式交付的,合同标的物进入对方当事人指定的特定系统且能够检索识别的时间为交付时间。

If the subject matter of an electronic contract is delivered by means of online transmission, the time of delivery shall be the time when the subject matter of the contract enters the specific system designated by the other party and becomes susceptible to search and identification.

电子合同当事人对交付商品或者提供服务的方式、时间另有约定的,按照其约定。

If the parties to an electronic contract otherwise agree on the method and time of delivering goods or providing services, such agreement shall prevail.

  第五百一十三条 执行政府定价或者政府指导价的,在合同约定的交付期限内政府价格调整时,按照交付时的价格计价。逾期交付标的物的,遇价格上涨时,按照原价格执行;价格下降时,按照新价格执行。逾期提取标的物或者逾期付款的,遇价格上涨时,按照新价格执行;价格下降时,按照原价格执行。

Article 513 Where a price set by the government or based on government issued pricing guidelines is adopted, if the price is adjusted within the time limit for delivery as stipulated in the contract, the payment shall be calculated according to the price at the time of delivery. Where a party delays in delivering the subject matter, the original price shall be adopted if the price rises; and the new price shall be adopted if the price falls. Where a party delays in taking delivery of the subject matter or making payment, the new price shall be adopted if the price rises, and the original price shall be adopted if the price falls.

  第五百一十四条 以支付金钱为内容的债,除法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定外,债权人可以请求债务人以实际履行地的法定货币履行。

Article 514 For an obligation to pay money, the creditor may request the debtor to pay in legal tender at the place of actual performance, unless otherwise provided by the law or agreed by the parties.

  第五百一十五条 标的有多项而债务人只需履行其中一项的,债务人享有选择权;但是,法律另有规定、当事人另有约定或者另有交易习惯的除外。

Article 515 Where an obligation has multiple subject matters, only one of which the debtor is required to perform, the debtor shall have the choice, unless otherwise provided by the law, agreed by the parties, or required by the usage of trade.

享有选择权的当事人在约定期限内或者履行期限届满未作选择,经催告后在合理期限内仍未选择的,选择权转移至对方。

If the party having the choice fails to exercise the choice within the agreed time limit or the time limit for performance, and fails to do so within a reasonable time limit after a demand, the choice shall pass to the other party.

  第五百一十六条 当事人行使选择权应当及时通知对方,通知到达对方时,标的确定。标的确定后不得变更,但是经对方同意的除外。

Article 516 A party exercising its choice shall notify the other party in a timely manner, and when the notice is received by the other party, the subject matter is determined. The subject matter so determined may not be modified, except with the consent of the other party.

可选择的标的发生不能履行情形的,享有选择权的当事人不得选择不能履行的标的,但是该不能履行的情形是由对方造成的除外。

If any of the alternative subject matters of an obligation becomes impossible to perform, the party having the choice shall not choose the subject matter, unless the performance is made impossible by the other party.

  第五百一十七条 债权人为二人以上,标的可分,按照份额各自享有债权的,为按份债权;债务人为二人以上,标的可分,按照份额各自负担债务的,为按份债务。

Article 517 A joint obligation for creditors is an obligation between not less than two creditors with subject matter divisible in such a manner that each creditor is owed the obligation to the extent of its share; and a joint obligation for debtors is an obligation between not less than two debtors with subject matter divisible in such a manner that each debtor owes the obligation to the extent of its share.

按份债权人或者按份债务人的份额难以确定的,视为份额相同。

If the shares of joint creditors or joint debtors are difficult to determine, the shares shall be treated as being equal.

  第五百一十八条 债权人为二人以上,部分或者全部债权人均可以请求债务人履行债务的,为连带债权;债务人为二人以上,债权人可以请求部分或者全部债务人履行全部债务的,为连带债务。

Article 518 A joint and several obligation for creditors is an obligation between not less than two creditors the performance of which part or all of the creditors may request from the debtor; and a joint and several obligation for debtors is an obligation between not less than two debtors the whole performance of which the creditor may request from part or all of the debtors.

连带债权或者连带债务,由法律规定或者当事人约定。

A joint and several obligation for creditors or debtors shall be provided by the law or agreed upon by the parties.

  第五百一十九条 连带债务人之间的份额难以确定的,视为份额相同。

Article 519 Where the shares of joint and several debtors are difficult to determine, the shares shall be treated as being equal.

实际承担债务超过自己份额的连带债务人,有权就超出部分在其他连带债务人未履行的份额范围内向其追偿,并相应地享有债权人的权利,但是不得损害债权人的利益。其他连带债务人对债权人的抗辩,可以向该债务人主张。

A joint and several debtor who actually pays the obligation in excess of its share shall have the right to recover the excess from the other joint and several debtors to the extent of the shares not performed and be subrogated to the right of the creditor accordingly without prejudice to the interest of the creditor. The other joint and several debtors may raise, against the debtor, defenses against the creditor.

被追偿的连带债务人不能履行其应分担份额的,其他连带债务人应当在相应范围内按比例分担。

Where a joint and several debtor against which recovery is exercised is unable to perform its share, the other joint and several debtors shall share the share pro rata, to the corresponding extent.

  第五百二十条 部分连带债务人履行、抵销债务或者提存标的物的,其他债务人对债权人的债务在相应范围内消灭;该债务人可以依据前条规定向其他债务人追偿。

Article 520 Where a joint and several debtor performs or sets off the obligation, or tenders and deposits the subject matter, the obligation owed by the other debtors to the creditor shall be extinguished to the corresponding extent; and the debtor may exercise recovery against the other debtors in accordance with the provisions of the preceding article.

部分连带债务人的债务被债权人免除的,在该连带债务人应当承担的份额范围内,其他债务人对债权人的债务消灭。

If the obligation owed by a joint and several debtor is remitted by the creditor, the obligation owed by the other debtors to the creditor shall be extinguished to the extent of the share to which the joint and several debtor is subject.

部分连带债务人的债务与债权人的债权同归于一人的,在扣除该债务人应当承担的份额后,债权人对其他债务人的债权继续存在。

If the obligation owed by a joint and several debtor and the obligation owed to the creditor pass to the same person, the obligation owed by the other debtors to the creditor shall subsist, less the share to which the joint and several debtor is subject.

债权人对部分连带债务人的给付受领迟延的,对其他连带债务人发生效力。

If a creditor delays accepting the performance from a joint and several debtor, the effect shall attach to the other joint and several debtors.

  第五百二十一条 连带债权人之间的份额难以确定的,视为份额相同。

Article 521 Where the shares of joint and several creditors are difficult to determine, the shares shall be treated as being equal.

实际受领债权的连带债权人,应当按比例向其他连带债权人返还。

A joint and several creditor who actually accepts performance of obligation shall make restitution to the other joint creditors pro rata.

连带债权参照适用本章连带债务的有关规定。

The provisions on joint and several obligations for debtors in this Chapter shall apply mutatis mutandis to joint and several obligations for creditors.

  第五百二十二条 当事人约定由债务人向第三人履行债务,债务人未向第三人履行债务或者履行债务不符合约定的,应当向债权人承担违约责任。

Article 522 Where the parties agree that the debtor shall perform the obligation to a third party, and the debtor fails to perform its obligations to such third party or the performance of the obligations is not in conformity with the agreement, the debtor shall be liable to the creditor for breach of contract.

法律规定或者当事人约定第三人可以直接请求债务人向其履行债务,第三人未在合理期限内明确拒绝,债务人未向第三人履行债务或者履行债务不符合约定的,第三人可以请求债务人承担违约责任;债务人对债权人的抗辩,可以向第三人主张。

When the law requires or the parties agree that a third party may directly request the debtor to perform the obligation to it, if the third party fails to expressly refuse within a reasonable time limit, and the debtor fails to perform the obligation to the third party, or the performance of the obligation is not in conformity with the agreement, the third party may claim liability of the debtor for breach of contract; and the debtor may raise, against the third party, defenses against the creditor.

  第五百二十三条 当事人约定由第三人向债权人履行债务,第三人不履行债务或者履行债务不符合约定的,债务人应当向债权人承担违约责任。

Article 523 Where the parties agree that a third party performs the obligation to the creditor, and the third party fails to perform the obligation, or the performance is not in conformity with the agreement, the debtor shall be liable to the creditor for breach of contract.

  第五百二十四条 债务人不履行债务,第三人对履行该债务具有合法利益的,第三人有权向债权人代为履行;但是,根据债务性质、按照当事人约定或者依照法律规定只能由债务人履行的除外。

Article 524 Where a debtor fails to perform the debt, and a third party has a lawful interest in performing the debt, the third party shall have the right to perform the obligation to the creditor on its behalf, unless the nature of the debt, the parties, or the law requires that only the debtor may perform.

债权人接受第三人履行后,其对债务人的债权转让给第三人,但是债务人和第三人另有约定的除外。

After the creditor has accepted the performance from the third party, the obligation owed by the debtor to it shall be assigned to the third party, unless otherwise agreed by the debtor and the third party.

  第五百二十五条 当事人互负债务,没有先后履行顺序的,应当同时履行。一方在对方履行之前有权拒绝其履行请求。一方在对方履行债务不符合约定时,有权拒绝其相应的履行请求。

Article 525 Where both parties have obligations toward each other and there is no order of priority in respect of the performance, the parties shall perform the obligations simultaneously. Each party has the right to reject any request of the other party for performance prior to the performance by the other party. If the performance of the obligations of the party who is to perform first is not in conformity with the agreement, the party who is perform later has the right to reject the other party's request for corresponding performance.

  第五百二十六条 当事人互负债务,有先后履行顺序,应当先履行债务一方未履行的,后履行一方有权拒绝其履行请求。先履行一方履行债务不符合约定的,后履行一方有权拒绝其相应的履行请求。

Article 526 Where both parties have obligations toward each other and there is an order of priority in respect of the performance, and the party required to perform the obligation first fails to do so, the party who is to perform later has the right to reject the other party's request for performance. If the performance of the obligations of the party who is to perform first is not in conformity with the agreement, the party who is to perform later has the right to reject the other party's request for corresponding performance.

  第五百二十七条 应当先履行债务的当事人,有确切证据证明对方有下列情形之一的,可以中止履行:

Article 527 The party required to perform first may suspend its performance if it has conclusive evidence that the other party is under any of the following circumstances:

(一)经营状况严重恶化;

(1) Its business has seriously deteriorated.

(二)转移财产、抽逃资金,以逃避债务;

(2) It has engaged in transfer of assets or withdrawal of funds for the purpose of evading obligations.

(三)丧失商业信誉;

(3) It has lost its business creditworthiness;

(四)有丧失或者可能丧失履行债务能力的其他情形。

(4) It is in any other circumstance which will or may cause it to lose its ability to perform.

当事人没有确切证据中止履行的,应当承担违约责任。

Where a party suspends performance without conclusive evidence, it shall be liable for breach of contract.

  第五百二十八条 当事人依据前条规定中止履行的,应当及时通知对方。对方提供适当担保的,应当恢复履行。中止履行后,对方在合理期限内未恢复履行能力且未提供适当担保的,视为以自己的行为表明不履行主要债务,中止履行的一方可以解除合同并可以请求对方承担违约责任。

Article 528 Where a party suspends its performance in accordance with the provisions of the preceding article, it shall, in a timely manner, notify the other party. If the other party provides appropriate assurance for its performance, the party shall resume performance. After performance has been suspended, if the other party fails to regain its ability to perform and fails to provide appropriate assurance within a reasonable time, the other party shall be treated as repudiating main obligations by its act, and the suspending party may rescind the contract and claim liability of the other party for breach of contract.

  第五百二十九条 债权人分立、合并或者变更住所没有通知债务人,致使履行债务发生困难的,债务人可以中止履行或者将标的物提存。

Article 529 Where the creditor fails to notify the debtor of its split, combination, or modification of its domicile, rendering the performance of obligations difficult, the debtor may suspend its performance or tender and deposit the subject matter.

  第五百三十条 债权人可以拒绝债务人提前履行债务,但是提前履行不损害债权人利益的除外。

Article 530 The creditor may reject the debtor's advance performance of its obligations, except that the advance performance does not harm the creditor's interests.

债务人提前履行债务给债权人增加的费用,由债务人负担。

Any additional expense incurred by the creditor due to the debtor's advance performance of its obligations shall be borne by the debtor.

  第五百三十一条 债权人可以拒绝债务人部分履行债务,但是部分履行不损害债权人利益的除外。

Article 531 A creditor may reject the debtor's partial performance, except that the partial performance of its obligations does not harm the creditor's interests.

债务人部分履行债务给债权人增加的费用,由债务人负担。

Any additional expense incurred by the creditor due to the debtor's partial performance of its obligations shall be borne by the debtor.

  第五百三十二条 合同生效后,当事人不得因姓名、名称的变更或者法定代表人、负责人、承办人的变动而不履行合同义务。

Article 532 Once a contract becomes effective, a party may not refuse to perform its obligations thereunder due to a change in its name, or its legal representative, the person in charge, or the person handling the contract.

  第五百三十三条 合同成立后,合同的基础条件发生了当事人在订立合同时无法预见的、不属于商业风险的重大变化,继续履行合同对于当事人一方明显不公平的,受不利影响的当事人可以与对方重新协商;在合理期限内协商不成的,当事人可以请求人民法院或者仲裁机构变更或者解除合同。

Article 533 Where the basic conditions of a contract undergoes a material change unforeseeable by the parties at the time of contracting which is not a commercial risk after the formation of the contract, rendering the continuation of the performance of the contract unconscionable for either party, the adversely affected party may renegotiate with the other party; and if the renegotiation fails within a reasonable time limit, the party may request the people's court or an arbitration institution to modify or rescind the contract.

人民法院或者仲裁机构应当结合案件的实际情况,根据公平原则变更或者解除合同。

The people's court or arbitration institution shall change or rescind the contract based on the actual circumstances of the case, in accordance with the principle of fairness.

  第五百三十四条 对当事人利用合同实施危害国家利益、社会公共利益行为的,市场监督管理和其他有关行政主管部门依照法律、行政法规的规定负责监督处理。

Article 534 Where a party uses a contract to compromise the national interest or public interest, the market regulation and other relevant administrative departments shall be responsible for supervision and disposition in accordance with the laws and administrative regulations.

第五章 合同的保全

Chapter V Preservation of Contracts

  第五百三十五条 因债务人怠于行使其债权或者与该债权有关的从权利,影响债权人的到期债权实现的,债权人可以向人民法院请求以自己的名义代位行使债务人对相对人的权利,但是该权利专属于债务人自身的除外。

Article 535 Where a debtor is remiss in exercising any obligation owed to the debtor or any right accessory thereto, affecting the realization of any due obligation owed by it to a creditor, the creditor may file a claim with the people's court for exercise of the rights of the debtor in place of the debtor against the opposite party in its own name, unless the right is strictly personal to the debtor.

代位权的行使范围以债权人的到期债权为限。债权人行使代位权的必要费用,由债务人负担。

The right of subrogation shall be exercised to the extent of the due obligation owed to the creditor. The expenses necessary for the creditor to exercise the right of subrogation shall be borne by the debtor.

相对人对债务人的抗辩,可以向债权人主张。

The opposite party may raise, against the creditor, defenses against the debtor.

  第五百三十六条 债权人的债权到期前,债务人的债权或者与该债权有关的从权利存在诉讼时效期间即将届满或者未及时申报破产债权等情形,影响债权人的债权实现的,债权人可以代位向债务人的相对人请求其向债务人履行、向破产管理人申报或者作出其他必要的行为。

Article 536 Where, before an obligation owed to the creditor becomes due, any obligation owed to the debtor or any accessory right related thereto falls under any circumstances such as imminent expiry of the extinctive prescription or failure to declare claims in bankruptcy proceedings, affecting the realization of the obligation owed to the creditor, the creditor may, in place of the debtor, request the party opposite to the debtor to render performance to the debtor, make a declaration to the bankruptcy administrator, or perform any other necessary act.

  第五百三十七条 人民法院认定代位权成立的,由债务人的相对人向债权人履行义务,债权人接受履行后,债权人与债务人、债务人与相对人之间相应的权利义务终止。债务人对相对人的债权或者与该债权有关的从权利被采取保全、执行措施,或者债务人破产的,依照相关法律的规定处理。

Article 537 Where the people's court determines that there is a right of subrogation, the party opposite to the debtor shall perform the obligation to the creditor, and after the creditor has accepted the performance, the corresponding rights and obligations between the creditor and the debtor and between the debtor and the opposite party shall terminate. If any obligation owed by the opposite party to the debtor or any accessory right related thereto is subjected to a preservation or enforcement measure, or the debtor is bankrupt, the provisions of relevant laws shall apply.

  第五百三十八条 债务人以放弃其债权、放弃债权担保、无偿转让财产等方式无偿处分财产权益,或者恶意延长其到期债权的履行期限,影响债权人的债权实现的,债权人可以请求人民法院撤销债务人的行为。

Article 538 Where a debtor gratuitously disposes of its property rights by waiving an obligation owed to the debtor, waiving the security provided for the obligation, gratuitously transferring property, and other means, or maliciously extends the time limit for performance of an obligation owed to the debtor, affecting the realization of the obligation owed to the creditor, the creditor may request the people's court to cancel the act of the debtor.

  第五百三十九条 债务人以明显不合理的低价转让财产、以明显不合理的高价受让他人财产或者为他人的债务提供担保,影响债权人的债权实现,债务人的相对人知道或者应当知道该情形的,债权人可以请求人民法院撤销债务人的行为。

Article 539 Where an debtor transfers its property at a low price which is manifestly unreasonable, acquires by transfer the property of another person at a high price which is manifestly unreasonable, or provides security for an obligation owed by another person, affecting the realization of the obligation owed to the creditor, and the party opposite to the debtor knows or should have known the circumstances, the creditor may request the people's court to cancel the act of the debtor.

  第五百四十条 撤销权的行使范围以债权人的债权为限。债权人行使撤销权的必要费用,由债务人负担。

Article 540 The right of revocatory action shall be exercised to the extent of the obligation owed to the creditor. The expenses necessary for the creditor to exercise the right of revocatory action shall be borne by the debtor.

  第五百四十一条 撤销权自债权人知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起一年内行使。自债务人的行为发生之日起五年内没有行使撤销权的,该撤销权消灭。

Article 541 The right of revocatory action shall be exercised within one year from the date the creditor knows or should have known the cause of cancellation. If the right of revocatory action is not exercised within five years from the date of the act of the debtor, the right of revocatory action is extinguished.

  第五百四十二条 债务人影响债权人的债权实现的行为被撤销的,自始没有法律约束力。

Article 542 Where the act of a debtor that affects the realization of the obligation owed to the creditor is canceled, the act shall be without legal binding force from the beginning.

第六章 合同的变更和转让

Chapter VI Modification and Assignment of Contracts

  第五百四十三条 当事人协商一致,可以变更合同。

Article 543 A contract may be modified if the parties reach a consensus through consultation.

  第五百四十四条 当事人对合同变更的内容约定不明确的,推定为未变更。

Article 544 Where an agreement by the parties is ambiguous regarding the contents of modification, the contract shall be presumed not modified.

  第五百四十五条 债权人可以将债权的全部或者部分转让给第三人,但是有下列情形之一的除外:

Article 545 A creditor may assign its claim, in whole or in part, to a third party, except under the following circumstances:

(一)根据债权性质不得转让;

(1) The claim may not be assigned in light of the nature of the contract.

(二)按照当事人约定不得转让;

(2) The claim may not be assigned according to the agreement between the parties.

(三)依照法律规定不得转让。

(3) The claim may not be assigned according to the provisions of the laws.

当事人约定非金钱债权不得转让的,不得对抗善意第三人。当事人约定金钱债权不得转让的,不得对抗第三人。

If the parties agree that a non-monetary claim shall not be assigned, the agreement shall not be effective against a third party in good faith. If the parties agree that a monetary claim shall not be assigned, the agreement shall not be effective against a third party.

  第五百四十六条 债权人转让债权,未通知债务人的,该转让对债务人不发生效力。

Article 546 Where a creditor assigns its claim without giving the debtor notice, such assignment will have no effect on the debtor.

债权转让的通知不得撤销,但是经受让人同意的除外。

A notice by the creditor to assign the claim shall not be revoked, unless such revocation is consented to by the assignee.

  第五百四十七条 债权人转让债权的,受让人取得与债权有关的从权利,但是该从权利专属于债权人自身的除外。

Article 547 Where a creditor assigns its claim, the assignee shall acquire any accessory right related to the claim, unless the accessory right is strictly personal to the creditor.

受让人取得从权利不因该从权利未办理转移登记手续或者未转移占有而受到影响。

The assignee's acquisition of the accessory right shall not be affected by the failure to undergo registration procedures for the transfer of the accessory right or by the failure to transfer the possession of the accessory right.

  第五百四十八条 债务人接到债权转让通知后,债务人对让与人的抗辩,可以向受让人主张。

Article 548 Upon receipt of the notice of assignment of the claim, a debtor may raise, against the assignee, any defenses against the assignor.

  第五百四十九条 有下列情形之一的,债务人可以向受让人主张抵销:

Article 549 Under any of the following circumstances, a debtor may claim set-off against the assignee:

(一)债务人接到债权转让通知时,债务人对让与人享有债权,且债务人的债权先于转让的债权到期或者同时到期;

(1) When the debtor receives a notice of assignment of the claim, the debtor is owed an obligation by the assignor, and the obligation is due before or at the same time as the claim assigned.

(二)债务人的债权与转让的债权是基于同一合同产生。

(2) The obligation owed to the debtor and the claim assigned arise from the same contract.

  第五百五十条 因债权转让增加的履行费用,由让与人负担。

Article 550 Any additional expenses of performance caused by the assignment of the claim shall be borne by the assignor.

  第五百五十一条 债务人将债务的全部或者部分转移给第三人的,应当经债权人同意。

Article 551 Where a debtor delegates its obligation in whole or in part to a third party, such delegation shall be subject to the consent of the creditor.

债务人或者第三人可以催告债权人在合理期限内予以同意,债权人未作表示的,视为不同意。

The debtor or the third party may demand that the creditor give its consent within a reasonable time limit, and the silence of the creditor shall be treated as disagreement.

  第五百五十二条 第三人与债务人约定加入债务并通知债权人,或者第三人向债权人表示愿意加入债务,债权人未在合理期限内明确拒绝的,债权人可以请求第三人在其愿意承担的债务范围内和债务人承担连带债务。

Article 552 Where a third party agrees with the debtor to join in the obligation and the creditor is notified, or the third party notifies the creditor of its willingness to join in the obligation, and the creditor fails to explicitly refuse within a reasonable time limit, the creditor may claim that the third party, to the extent of the obligation that it is willing to assume, and the debtor assume the obligation jointly and severally.

  第五百五十三条 债务人转移债务的,新债务人可以主张原债务人对债权人的抗辩;原债务人对债权人享有债权的,新债务人不得向债权人主张抵销。

Article 553 Where a debtor delegates its obligation, the new debtor may raise defenses that the original debtor had against the creditor; and if the original debtor is owed an obligation by the creditor, the new debtor may not claim set-off against the creditor.

  第五百五十四条 债务人转移债务的,新债务人应当承担与主债务有关的从债务,但是该从债务专属于原债务人自身的除外。

Article 554 Where a debtor delegates its obligation, the new debtor shall assume any accessory obligation related to the principal obligation, unless the accessory obligation is strictly personal to the original debtor.

  第五百五十五条 当事人一方经对方同意,可以将自己在合同中的权利和义务一并转让给第三人。

Article 555 With the consent of the other party, one party may transfer its rights together with its obligations under contract to a third party.

  第五百五十六条 合同的权利和义务一并转让的,适用债权转让、债务转移的有关规定。

Article 556 Where contractual rights and obligations are transferred together, the provisions on the assignment of claims and delegation of obligations shall apply.

第七章 合同的权利义务终止

Chapter VII Termination of Contractual Rights and Obligations

  第五百五十七条 有下列情形之一的,债权债务终止:

Article 557 An obligation shall be terminated under any of the following circumstances:

(一)债务已经履行;

(1) The obligation has been performed.

(二)债务相互抵销;

(2) The obligation is set off against another.

(三)债务人依法将标的物提存;

(3) The debtor legally tenders and deposits the subject matter.

(四)债权人免除债务;

(4) The creditor remits the obligation.

(五)债权债务同归于一人;

(5) The obligation is owed to and by the same person.

(六)法律规定或者当事人约定终止的其他情形。

(6) Any other circumstances for termination as stipulated by laws or agreed upon by the parties.

合同解除的,该合同的权利义务关系终止。

When a contract is rescinded, the rights and obligations under the contract shall be terminated.

  第五百五十八条 债权债务终止后,当事人应当遵循诚信等原则,根据交易习惯履行通知、协助、保密、旧物回收等义务。

Article 558 After the termination of an obligation, the parties shall observe the principles such as good faith and perform obligations such as notification, assistance, confidentiality, and recycling of used things in accordance with the relevant usage of trade.

  第五百五十九条 债权债务终止时,债权的从权利同时消灭,但是法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 559 When an obligation is terminated, any right accessory to the obligation owed to the creditor shall be extinguished, except as otherwise provided by the law or agreed upon by the parties.

  第五百六十条 债务人对同一债权人负担的数项债务种类相同,债务人的给付不足以清偿全部债务的,除当事人另有约定外,由债务人在清偿时指定其履行的债务。

Article 560 Where a debtor owes several obligations of the same type to the same creditor, and the payment by the debtor is insufficient to cover all the obligations, the debtor may impute the repayment to the obligation that it intends to perform, unless otherwise agreed by the parties.

债务人未作指定的,应当优先履行已经到期的债务;数项债务均到期的,优先履行对债权人缺乏担保或者担保最少的债务;均无担保或者担保相等的,优先履行债务人负担较重的债务;负担相同的,按照债务到期的先后顺序履行;到期时间相同的,按照债务比例履行。

If the debtor fails to do so, performance shall be first imputed to the obligation that is due; if several obligations are due, performance shall be first imputed to the obligation that is not secured or is secured the least to the creditor; if none is secured, or the security is equal, performance shall be first imputed to the obligation that is more burdensome to the debtor; if the burdens are equal, performance shall be imputed to the obligations in the order of their due time; and if the due time is the same, performance shall be imputed to the obligations pro rata.

  第五百六十一条 债务人在履行主债务外还应当支付利息和实现债权的有关费用,其给付不足以清偿全部债务的,除当事人另有约定外,应当按照下列顺序履行:

Article 561 Where a debtor is required, in addition to performing the principal obligation, to pay interest and the costs associated with the realization of the obligation, and its performance is not sufficient to cover all the obligations, performance shall imputed in the following order, unless otherwise agreed by the parties:

(一)实现债权的有关费用;

(1) The costs associated with the realization of the obligation.

(二)利息;

(2) Interest.

(三)主债务。

(3) Principal obligation

  第五百六十二条 当事人协商一致,可以解除合同。

Article 562 The parties may rescind a contract if they reach a consensus through consultation.

当事人可以约定一方解除合同的事由。解除合同的事由发生时,解除权人可以解除合同。

The parties may agree upon the cause of rescission of the contract by either party. Upon the cause occurs, the party who has the right to rescission may rescind the contract.

  第五百六十三条 有下列情形之一的,当事人可以解除合同:

Article 563 The parties to a contract may rescind the contract under any of the following circumstances:

(一)因不可抗力致使不能实现合同目的;

(1) It becomes impossible to achieve the purpose of contract for a force majeure.

(二)在履行期限届满前,当事人一方明确表示或者以自己的行为表明不履行主要债务;

(2) Prior to the expiration of the period of performance, the other party expressly states, or indicates through its conduct, that it will not perform its main obligation.

(三)当事人一方迟延履行主要债务,经催告后在合理期限内仍未履行;

(3) The other party delays performance of its main obligation, and after such performance is demanded, still fails to perform within a reasonable period.

(四)当事人一方迟延履行债务或者有其他违约行为致使不能实现合同目的;

(4) The other party delays performance of its obligations, or breaches the contract in some other manner, making it impossible to achieve the purpose of the contract.

(五)法律规定的其他情形。

(5) Other circumstance as provided by the law.

以持续履行的债务为内容的不定期合同,当事人可以随时解除合同,但是应当在合理期限之前通知对方。

A contract without a term, requiring the successive performance of the obligation, may be rescinded by a party any time, provided that the other party is notified within a reasonable time.

  第五百六十四条 法律规定或者当事人约定解除权行使期限,期限届满当事人不行使的,该权利消灭。

Article 564 Where the law provides for or the parties agree upon the time limit to exercise the right to rescind a contract, and no party exercises it when the time limit expires, the right shall be extinguished.

法律没有规定或者当事人没有约定解除权行使期限,自解除权人知道或者应当知道解除事由之日起一年内不行使,或者经对方催告后在合理期限内不行使的,该权利消灭。

Where neither the law provides for nor the parties make an agreement upon the time limit to exercise the right to rescind a contract, the right shall be extinguished by non-exercise within one year from the day when the party who has the right to rescind knows or should have known the cause of rescission or within a reasonable period after the other party makes a demand.

  第五百六十五条 当事人一方依法主张解除合同的,应当通知对方。合同自通知到达对方时解除;通知载明债务人在一定期限内不履行债务则合同自动解除,债务人在该期限内未履行债务的,合同自通知载明的期限届满时解除。对方对解除合同有异议的,任何一方当事人均可以请求人民法院或者仲裁机构确认解除行为的效力。

Article 565 A party demanding rescission of a contract in accordance with the law shall notify the other party. The contract shall be rescinded upon the receipt of the notice by the other party; and if the notice states that the contract will be automatically rescinded by the debtor's failure to perform the obligation within a time limit, and the debtor fails to do so, the contract shall be rescinded at the expiration of the time limit stated in the notice. If the other party objects to such rescission, either party may petition the people's court or an arbitration institution to confirm the validity of the rescission.

当事人一方未通知对方,直接以提起诉讼或者申请仲裁的方式依法主张解除合同,人民法院或者仲裁机构确认该主张的,合同自起诉状副本或者仲裁申请书副本送达对方时解除。

Where one party fails to notify the other party and directly claims the rescission of the contract by instituting an action or applying for arbitration, if the people's court or arbitration institution affirms the claim, the contract shall be rescinded when a copy of the written complaint or a copy of the arbitration application is served on the other party.

  第五百六十六条 合同解除后,尚未履行的,终止履行;已经履行的,根据履行情况和合同性质,当事人可以请求恢复原状或者采取其他补救措施,并有权请求赔偿损失。

Article 566 After the rescission of a contract, performance shall cease if the contract has not been performed; if the contract has been performed, a party may, in accordance with the circumstances of performance or the nature of the contract, request restoration to the original state or adopt other remedial measures, and shall have the right to claim damages.

合同因违约解除的,解除权人可以请求违约方承担违约责任,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

If a contract is rescinded because of breach of contract, the party who has the right to rescind may claim liability of the party in breach for breach of contract, unless otherwise agreed by the parties.

主合同解除后,担保人对债务人应当承担的民事责任仍应当承担担保责任,但是担保合同另有约定的除外。

After the rescission of the principal contract, the guarantor's liability shall remain to cover the civil liability that the debtor assumes, except as otherwise stipulated in the guarantee contract.

  第五百六十七条 合同的权利义务关系终止,不影响合同中结算和清理条款的效力。

Article 567 The termination of a relation of rights and obligations under a contact shall not affect the validity of clauses that related to settlement of accounts and winding-up.

  第五百六十八条 当事人互负债务,该债务的标的物种类、品质相同的,任何一方可以将自己的债务与对方的到期债务抵销;但是,根据债务性质、按照当事人约定或者依照法律规定不得抵销的除外。

Article 568 Where the parties owe obligations to each other, and the type and nature of the subject matter of such obligations are the same, any party may set off its own obligation against the due obligation of the other party, unless such set-off is not allowed by the nature of the obligations, as agreed upon by the parties, or according to the laws and regulations.

当事人主张抵销的,应当通知对方。通知自到达对方时生效。抵销不得附条件或者附期限。

A party who claims set-off shall notify the other party. The notice shall become effective when it reaches the other party. The set-off shall not be subject to any condition or term.

  第五百六十九条 当事人互负债务,标的物种类、品质不相同的,经协商一致,也可以抵销。

Article 569 Where the parties owe obligations to each other, and the type and nature of such obligations are different, the obligations may also be set off upon consensus between the parties after consultation.

  第五百七十条 有下列情形之一,难以履行债务的,债务人可以将标的物提存:

Article 570 A debtor may tender and deposit the subject matter of an obligation under any of the following circumstances which render performance of the obligation difficult:

(一)债权人无正当理由拒绝受领;

(1) The creditor refuses to accept performance without justified reasons.

(二)债权人下落不明;

(2) The whereabouts of the creditor are unknown.

(三)债权人死亡未确定继承人、遗产管理人,或者丧失民事行为能力未确定监护人;

(3) The creditor is deceased and the successor or administrator of its estate has not been determined, or the creditor has lost civil capacity and a guardian has not been appointed.

(四)法律规定的其他情形。

(4) Other circumstances as provided for by the law.

标的物不适于提存或者提存费用过高的,债务人依法可以拍卖或者变卖标的物,提存所得的价款。

Where the subject matter is not fit for tender and deposit, or the tender and deposit costs are excessively high, the debtor may auction or sell the subject matter according to the law, and tender and deposit the proceeds therefrom.

  第五百七十一条 债务人将标的物或者将标的物依法拍卖、变卖所得价款交付提存部门时,提存成立。

Article 571 Tender and deposit are made when a debtor delivers the subject matter or the proceeds from the legal auction or sale of the subject matter to the depositary.

提存成立的,视为债务人在其提存范围内已经交付标的物。

In such a case, the debtor shall be treated as having delivered the subject matter to the extent of the tender and deposit.

  第五百七十二条 标的物提存后,债务人应当及时通知债权人或者债权人的继承人、遗产管理人、监护人、财产代管人。

Article 572 A debtor shall notify the creditor, or the successor, administrator of the estate, guardian, or administrator of the property of the creditor in a timely manner after the subject matter has been tendered and deposited.

  第五百七十三条 标的物提存后,毁损、灭失的风险由债权人承担。提存期间,标的物的孳息归债权人所有。提存费用由债权人负担。

Article 573 Once the subject matter has been tendered and deposited, the risk of damage to and destruction or loss of the subject matter shall be borne by the creditor. The creditor shall be entitled to any fruits of the subject matter during the tender and deposit period. Tender and deposit costs shall be borne by the creditor.

  第五百七十四条 债权人可以随时领取提存物。但是,债权人对债务人负有到期债务的,在债权人未履行债务或者提供担保之前,提存部门根据债务人的要求应当拒绝其领取提存物。

Article 574 A creditor may claim the subject matter tendered and deposited at any time, unless the creditor has any due obligations toward the debtor, in which case, prior to the creditor's performance of its obligations or the creditor's provision of security for its performance, the depositary shall, at the request of the debtor, refuse the creditor's claim of the tendered and deposited property.

债权人领取提存物的权利,自提存之日起五年内不行使而消灭,提存物扣除提存费用后归国家所有。但是,债权人未履行对债务人的到期债务,或者债权人向提存部门书面表示放弃领取提存物权利的,债务人负担提存费用后有权取回提存物。

The right of the creditor to claim the tendered and deposited property shall lapse if it is not exercised within five years from the tender and deposit date, and the tendered and deposited property shall revert to the national treasury after the deduction of the tender and deposit costs. However, if the creditor fails to perform its due obligation owed to the debtor, or notifies the depositary in writing of waiving its right to claim the tendered and deposited property, the debtor shall have the right to recover the tendered and deposited property after paying the tender and deposit costs.

  第五百七十五条 债权人免除债务人部分或者全部债务的,债权债务部分或者全部终止,但是债务人在合理期限内拒绝的除外。

Article 575 Where a creditor remits part or whole of the obligation owed by the debtor, the obligation shall terminate in whole or in part, unless the debtor refuses within a reasonable time limit.

  第五百七十六条 债权和债务同归于一人的,债权债务终止,但是损害第三人利益的除外。

Article 576 Where an obligation is owed to and by the same person, the obligation shall terminate, unless it is detrimental to the interests of a third party.

第八章 违约责任

Chapter VIII Liability for Breach of Contract

  第五百七十七条 当事人一方不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定的,应当承担继续履行、采取补救措施或者赔偿损失等违约责任。

Article 577 Where a party fails to perform its obligations under a contract, or its performance fails to satisfy the terms of the contract, it shall continue to perform its obligations, take remedial measures, pay damages, or be otherwise held liable for breach of contract.

  第五百七十八条 当事人一方明确表示或者以自己的行为表明不履行合同义务的,对方可以在履行期限届满前请求其承担违约责任。

Article 578 Where one party expresses explicitly or indicates by its conduct that it will not perform its obligations under a contract, the other party may claim liability of the party for breach of contract before the expiry of the time limit for performance.

  第五百七十九条 当事人一方未支付价款、报酬、租金、利息,或者不履行其他金钱债务的,对方可以请求其支付。

Article 579 Where a party fails to pay the price, remuneration, rent, or interest, or fails to perform any other monetary obligation, the other party may request it to make the payment.

  第五百八十条 当事人一方不履行非金钱债务或者履行非金钱债务不符合约定的,对方可以请求履行,但是有下列情形之一的除外:

Article 580 Where a party fails to perform the non-monetary obligations, or fails to perform the non-monetary obligations as agreed, the other party may request it to perform except under any of the following circumstances:

(一)法律上或者事实上不能履行;

(1) It is unable to be performed in law or in fact.

(二)债务的标的不适于强制履行或者履行费用过高;

(2) The subject matter of the obligation is unfit for enforcement or the performance expenses are excessively high;

(三)债权人在合理期限内未请求履行。

(3) The creditor does not request performance within a reasonable time limit.

有前款规定的除外情形之一,致使不能实现合同目的的,人民法院或者仲裁机构可以根据当事人的请求终止合同权利义务关系,但是不影响违约责任的承担。

If any of the foregoing circumstances makes it impossible to achieve the purpose of contract, the people's court or arbitration institution may terminate the relation of contractual obligations and rights at the request of either party, without affecting the assumption of the liability for breach of contract.

  第五百八十一条 当事人一方不履行债务或者履行债务不符合约定,根据债务的性质不得强制履行的,对方可以请求其负担由第三人替代履行的费用。

Article 581 Where one party fails to perform the obligation, or fails to perform the obligation as agreed, and the nature of the obligation precludes the enforcement of performance, the other party may request it to bear the costs of substitute performance by the third party.

  第五百八十二条 履行不符合约定的,应当按照当事人的约定承担违约责任。对违约责任没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,受损害方根据标的的性质以及损失的大小,可以合理选择请求对方承担修理、重作、更换、退货、减少价款或者报酬等违约责任。

Article 582 Where performance fails to satisfy the agreement, the liability for breach of contract shall be borne as agreed upon by the parties. Where there is no agreement in the contract on the liability for breach of contract or such agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with the provisions of Article 510 of this Code, the aggrieved party may, in light of the nature of the subject matter and the degree of loss, reasonably choose to request the other party to bear the liability for breach of contract by repairing, remaking, replacing, returning the goods, reducing the price or remuneration, etc.

  第五百八十三条 当事人一方不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定的,在履行义务或者采取补救措施后,对方还有其他损失的,应当赔偿损失。

Article 583 Where a party fails to perform its obligations under the contract or fails to perform the obligations as agreed, and the other party still suffers from other losses after the performance of the obligations or adoption of remedial measures, the party shall compensate the other party for such losses.

  第五百八十四条 当事人一方不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定,造成对方损失的,损失赔偿额应当相当于因违约所造成的损失,包括合同履行后可以获得的利益;但是,不得超过违约一方订立合同时预见到或者应当预见到的因违约可能造成的损失。

Article 584 Where a party fails to perform its obligations under the contract or its performance fails to conform to the agreement, causing losses to the other party, the amount of compensation for losses shall be equal to the losses caused by the breach of contract, including the interests receivable after the performance of the contract, but not exceeding the probable losses caused by the breach of contract which are foreseen or should have been foreseen when the party in breach concludes the contract.

  第五百八十五条 当事人可以约定一方违约时应当根据违约情况向对方支付一定数额的违约金,也可以约定因违约产生的损失赔偿额的计算方法。

Article 585 The parties may agree that if one party breaches the contract, it shall pay a certain sum of liquidated damages to the other party in light of the circumstances of the breach, and may also agree on a method for the calculation of the amount of compensation for losses incurred as a result of the breach.

约定的违约金低于造成的损失的,人民法院或者仲裁机构可以根据当事人的请求予以增加;约定的违约金过分高于造成的损失的,人民法院或者仲裁机构可以根据当事人的请求予以适当减少。

Where the amount of liquidated damages agreed upon is lower than the losses incurred, the people's court or arbitration institution may, at the request of a party, increase the amount of liquidated damages; where the amount of liquidated damages agreed upon are significantly higher than the losses incurred, the people's court or arbitration institution may appropriately reduce it at the request of a party.

当事人就迟延履行约定违约金的,违约方支付违约金后,还应当履行债务。

Where the parties agree upon liquidated damages in respect to the delay in performance, the party in breach shall still perform the obligations after paying the liquidated damages.

  第五百八十六条 当事人可以约定一方向对方给付定金作为债权的担保。定金合同自实际交付定金时成立。

Article 586 The parties may agree that one party pays a deposit to the other party as security for the obligation owed to the creditor. The deposit contract shall be formed when the deposit is actually delivered.

定金的数额由当事人约定;但是,不得超过主合同标的额的百分之二十,超过部分不产生定金的效力。实际交付的定金数额多于或者少于约定数额的,视为变更约定的定金数额。

The amount of the deposit shall be agreed upon by the parties, but shall not exceed 20% of the value of the subject matter of the principal contract, and any excess shall be without the effect of deposit. If the amount of the deposit actually delivered is more or less than the agreed amount, the agreed amount of the deposit shall be treated as being modified.

  第五百八十七条 债务人履行债务的,定金应当抵作价款或者收回。给付定金的一方不履行债务或者履行债务不符合约定,致使不能实现合同目的的,无权请求返还定金;收受定金的一方不履行债务或者履行债务不符合约定,致使不能实现合同目的的,应当双倍返还定金。

Article 587 Where the debtor performs its obligation, the deposit shall be set off against the price or refunded to the debtor. If the party that pays the deposit fails to perform the obligation or fails to perform the obligation as agreed, making it impossible to achieve the purpose of the contract, it shall have no right to request the refunding of the deposit; where the party accepting the deposit fails to perform its obligations or fails to perform the obligation as agreed, making it impossible to achieve the purpose of the contract, it shall refund twice the value of the deposit.

  第五百八十八条 当事人既约定违约金,又约定定金的,一方违约时,对方可以选择适用违约金或者定金条款。

Article 588 Where the parties agree on both liquidated damages and a deposit, and one party is in breach, the other party may choose to apply either the liquidated damages clause or the deposit clause.

定金不足以弥补一方违约造成的损失的,对方可以请求赔偿超过定金数额的损失。

If the agreed deposit is insufficient to cover the losses caused by a party's breach of contract, the other party may claim compensation for losses in excess of the amount of the deposit.

  第五百八十九条 债务人按照约定履行债务,债权人无正当理由拒绝受领的,债务人可以请求债权人赔偿增加的费用。

Article 589 Where a debtor performs the obligation as agreed, and the creditor refuses to accept without justification, the debtor may claim compensation for additional expenses from the creditor.

在债权人受领迟延期间,债务人无须支付利息。

During the creditor's delay in acceptance, the debtor is not required to pay interest.

  第五百九十条 当事人一方因不可抗力不能履行合同的,根据不可抗力的影响,部分或者全部免除责任,但是法律另有规定的除外。因不可抗力不能履行合同的,应当及时通知对方,以减轻可能给对方造成的损失,并应当在合理期限内提供证明。

Article 590 Where a party is unable to perform the contract due to a force majeure, the party shall be exempt from liability in part or in whole based on the impact of force majeure, except as otherwise provided by the law. In such a case, the party shall, in a timely manner, notify the other party, so as to mitigate the loss possibly caused to the other party, and provide proof within a reasonable time limit.

当事人迟延履行后发生不可抗力的,不免除其违约责任。

If a force majeure occurs after a party delays performance, the party shall not be exempt from liability for breach.

  第五百九十一条 当事人一方违约后,对方应当采取适当措施防止损失的扩大;没有采取适当措施致使损失扩大的,不得就扩大的损失请求赔偿。

Article 591 Where a party is in breach of contract, the other party shall take appropriate measures to prevent the aggravation of losses; and if the failure to do so results in the aggravation of losses, the other party may not claim compensation for the aggravation of losses.

当事人因防止损失扩大而支出的合理费用,由违约方负担。

The reasonable expenses incurred by the other party to prevent the aggravation of losses shall be borne by the party in breach.

  第五百九十二条 当事人都违反合同的,应当各自承担相应的责任。

Article 592 If both parties are in breach of contract, each party shall be correspondingly liable.

当事人一方违约造成对方损失,对方对损失的发生有过错的,可以减少相应的损失赔偿额。

If one party's breach of contract causes loss to the other party, and the other party is at fault for the occurrence of the loss, the amount of compensation for the loss may be reduced correspondingly.

  第五百九十三条 当事人一方因第三人的原因造成违约的,应当依法向对方承担违约责任。当事人一方和第三人之间的纠纷,依照法律规定或者按照约定处理。

Article 593 Where a party is in breach because of a third party, it shall be liable to the other party for breach in accordance with the law. Any dispute between the party and such third party shall be handled in accordance with the law or as agreed.

  第五百九十四条 因国际货物买卖合同和技术进出口合同争议提起诉讼或者申请仲裁的时效期间为四年。

Article 594 For a dispute arising from a contract for the international sale of goods or a technology import or export contract, the time limit for instituting an action or applying for arbitration is four years

第二分编 典型合同

Title Two Nominate Contracts

第九章 买卖合同

Chapter IX Sales Contracts

  第五百九十五条 买卖合同是出卖人转移标的物的所有权于买受人,买受人支付价款的合同。

Article 595 A sales contract is a contract whereby the seller transfers the ownership of the subject matter to the buyer and the buyer pays the price for it.

  第五百九十六条 买卖合同的内容一般包括标的物的名称、数量、质量、价款、履行期限、履行地点和方式、包装方式、检验标准和方法、结算方式、合同使用的文字及其效力等条款。

Article 596 A sales contract shall generally include the name, quantity, quality, and price of the subject matter; the time limit, place, and method for performance; and packaging method, inspection standards and methods, settlement method, the language employed in the contract, and its validity.

  第五百九十七条 因出卖人未取得处分权致使标的物所有权不能转移的,买受人可以解除合同并请求出卖人承担违约责任。

Article 597 Where a seller fails to acquire the right to dispose, rendering the transfer of ownership of the subject matter impossible, the buyer may rescind the contract, and claim liability of the seller for breach of contract.

法律、行政法规禁止或者限制转让的标的物,依照其规定。

Where the transfer of a subject matter is prohibited or restricted by any law or administrative regulation, the law or administrative regulation shall prevail.

  第五百九十八条 出卖人应当履行向买受人交付标的物或者交付提取标的物的单证,并转移标的物所有权的义务。

Article 598 A seller shall perform the obligation to deliver the subject matter or a document for taking delivery of the subject matter, and transfer the ownership to the buyer.

  第五百九十九条 出卖人应当按照约定或者交易习惯向买受人交付提取标的物单证以外的有关单证和资料。

Article 599 In addition to the document for taking delivery of the subject matter, the seller shall deliver to the buyer the relevant documents and information in accordance with the agreement or usage of trade.

  第六百条 出卖具有知识产权的标的物的,除法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定外,该标的物的知识产权不属于买受人。

Article 600 In a sale of any subject matter subject to intellectual property rights, the intellectual property rights in the subject matter does not belong to the buyer, except as otherwise provided by the law or agreed by the parties.

  第六百零一条 出卖人应当按照约定的时间交付标的物。约定交付期限的,出卖人可以在该交付期限内的任何时间交付。

Article 601 The seller shall deliver the subject matter at the time agreed upon. Where a period for delivery is agreed upon, the seller may deliver at any time within the period.

  第六百零二条 当事人没有约定标的物的交付期限或者约定不明确的,适用本法第五百一十条、第五百一十一条第四项的规定。

Article 602 Where no period for delivery of the subject matter is agreed upon between the parties or the agreement is not clear, the provisions of Articles 510 and 511(4) of this Code shall apply.

  第六百零三条 出卖人应当按照约定的地点交付标的物。

Article 603 The seller shall deliver the subject matter at the agreed place.

当事人没有约定交付地点或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,适用下列规定:

Where there is no agreement between the parties as to a place for delivery, or such agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 510 of this Code, the following provisions shall apply:

(一)标的物需要运输的,出卖人应当将标的物交付给第一承运人以运交给买受人;

(1) If the subject matter needs carriage, the seller shall deliver the subject matter to the first carrier so as to hand it over to the buyer.

(二)标的物不需要运输,出卖人和买受人订立合同时知道标的物在某一地点的,出卖人应当在该地点交付标的物;不知道标的物在某一地点的,应当在出卖人订立合同时的营业地交付标的物。

(2) If the subject matter does not need carriage, and the seller and buyer know the place of the subject matter when concluding the contract, the seller shall deliver the subject matter at such place; if the place is unknown, the subject matter shall be delivered at the business place of the seller when concluding the contract.

  第六百零四条 标的物毁损、灭失的风险,在标的物交付之前由出卖人承担,交付之后由买受人承担,但是法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 604 The risk of damage to or loss of a subject matter shall be borne by the seller prior to the delivery of the subject matter and by the buyer after delivery, except as otherwise stipulated by law or agreed upon by the parties.

  第六百零五条 因买受人的原因致使标的物未按照约定的期限交付的,买受人应当自违反约定时起承担标的物毁损、灭失的风险。

Article 605 Where a subject matter fails to be delivered within the agreed time limit because of the buyer, the buyer shall bear the risk of damage to or loss of the subject matter as from the date it breaches the agreement.

  第六百零六条 出卖人出卖交由承运人运输的在途标的物,除当事人另有约定外,毁损、灭失的风险自合同成立时起由买受人承担。

Article 606 Where the seller sells a subject matter delivered to a carrier for carriage and is in transit, unless otherwise agreed upon by the parties, the risk of damage to or loss of the subject matter shall pass to the buyer at the time of formation of the contract.

  第六百零七条 出卖人按照约定将标的物运送至买受人指定地点并交付给承运人后,标的物毁损、灭失的风险由买受人承担。

Article 607 After the seller has the subject matter transported to the place designated by the buyer and delivered to the carrier in accordance with the agreement, the risk of damage to or loss of the subject matter shall be borne by the buyer.

当事人没有约定交付地点或者约定不明确,依据本法第六百零三条第二款第一项的规定标的物需要运输的,出卖人将标的物交付给第一承运人后,标的物毁损、灭失的风险由买受人承担。

Where there is no agreement between the parties as to the place for delivery or such agreement is not clearly, and the subject matter needs carriage according to the provisions of paragraph 2(1), Article 603 of this Code, the risk of damage to or loss of the subject matter shall be borne by the buyer after the seller has delivered the subject matter to the first carrier.

  第六百零八条 出卖人按照约定或者依据本法第六百零三条第二款第二项的规定将标的物置于交付地点,买受人违反约定没有收取的,标的物毁损、灭失的风险自违反约定时起由买受人承担。

Article 608 Where the seller has placed the subject matter at the place of delivery in accordance with the agreement or in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 2(2), Article 603 of this Code, while the buyer fails to take delivery in breach of the agreement, the risk of damage to or loss of the subject matter shall pass to the buyer on the date of breach of the agreement.

  第六百零九条 出卖人按照约定未交付有关标的物的单证和资料的,不影响标的物毁损、灭失风险的转移。

Article 609 The failure of the seller to deliver the documents and information relating to the subject matter as agreed upon shall not affect the passing of the risk of damage to or loss of the subject matter.

  第六百一十条 因标的物不符合质量要求,致使不能实现合同目的的,买受人可以拒绝接受标的物或者解除合同。买受人拒绝接受标的物或者解除合同的,标的物毁损、灭失的风险由出卖人承担。

Article 610 Where the quality of the subject matter does not conform to the quality requirements, making it impossible to achieve the purpose of the contract, the buyer may refuse to accept the subject matter or may rescind the contract. If the buyer refuses to accept the subject matter or rescinds the contract, the risk of damage to or loss of the subject matter shall be borne by the seller.

  第六百一十一条 标的物毁损、灭失的风险由买受人承担的,不影响因出卖人履行义务不符合约定,买受人请求其承担违约责任的权利。

Article 611 Where the risk of damage to or loss of the subject matter is borne by the buyer, it shall not affect the buyer's claim of liability of the seller for breach of contract because the seller's performance of its obligations is not in conformity with the agreement.

  第六百一十二条 出卖人就交付的标的物,负有保证第三人对该标的物不享有任何权利的义务,但是法律另有规定的除外。

Article 612 Unless otherwise provided by the law, the seller shall have the obligation to warrant that no third party has any right to the delivered subject matter.

  第六百一十三条 买受人订立合同时知道或者应当知道第三人对买卖的标的物享有权利的,出卖人不承担前条规定的义务。

Article 613 Where the buyer knows or should have known, at the time of contracting, that a third party has rights to the subject matter for sale, the seller shall have no obligation prescribed in the preceding article.

  第六百一十四条 买受人有确切证据证明第三人对标的物享有权利的,可以中止支付相应的价款,但是出卖人提供适当担保的除外。

Article 614 Where the buyer has conclusive evidence that a third party has rights to the subject matter, it may stop paying the corresponding price, except where the seller provides appropriate security.

  第六百一十五条 出卖人应当按照约定的质量要求交付标的物。出卖人提供有关标的物质量说明的,交付的标的物应当符合该说明的质量要求。

Article 615 The seller shall deliver the subject matter in compliance with the agreed quality requirements. Where the seller gives the quality specifications for the subject matter, the subject matter delivered shall comply with the quality requirements set forth therein.

  第六百一十六条 当事人对标的物的质量要求没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,适用本法第五百一十一条第一项的规定。

Article 616 Where the quality requirements for the subject matter is not agreed between parties or such agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 510 of this Code, the provisions of Article 511(1) of this Code shall be applied.

  第六百一十七条 出卖人交付的标的物不符合质量要求的,买受人可以依据本法第五百八十二条至第五百八十四条的规定请求承担违约责任。

Article 617 Where the subject matter delivered by the seller fails to comply with the quality requirements, the buyer may request the seller to bear liability for breach of contract in accordance with Articles 582 through 584 of this Code.

  第六百一十八条 当事人约定减轻或者免除出卖人对标的物瑕疵承担的责任,因出卖人故意或者重大过失不告知买受人标的物瑕疵的,出卖人无权主张减轻或者免除责任。

Article 618 Where the parties agree to limit or exclude the liability for any defect in the subject matter, and the seller fails to notify the buyer of the defect in the subject matter intentionally or due to gross negligence, the seller shall have no right to claim limitation or exclusion of the liability.

  第六百一十九条 出卖人应当按照约定的包装方式交付标的物。对包装方式没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,应当按照通用的方式包装;没有通用方式的,应当采取足以保护标的物且有利于节约资源、保护生态环境的包装方式。

Article 619 The seller shall deliver the subject matter packed in the agreed manner. Where there is no agreement on package manner in the contract or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 510 of this Code, the subject matter shall be packed in a general manner, and if no general manner, a package manner enough to protect the subject matter and conducive to conserving resources and protecting the ecology and environment shall be adopted.

  第六百二十条 买受人收到标的物时应当在约定的检验期限内检验。没有约定检验期限的,应当及时检验。

Article 620 Upon receipt of the subject matter, the buyer shall inspect it within the agreed inspection period. Where no inspection period is agreed, the buyer shall inspect the subject matter in a timely manner.

  第六百二十一条 当事人约定检验期限的,买受人应当在检验期限内将标的物的数量或者质量不符合约定的情形通知出卖人。买受人怠于通知的,视为标的物的数量或者质量符合约定。

Article 621 Where the parties have agreed upon an inspection period, the buyer shall notify the seller of any non-compliance in quantity or quality of the subject matter within such inspection period. Where the buyer is remiss in notifying the seller, the quantity or quality of the subject matter is deemed to comply with the contract.

当事人没有约定检验期限的,买受人应当在发现或者应当发现标的物的数量或者质量不符合约定的合理期限内通知出卖人。买受人在合理期限内未通知或者自收到标的物之日起二年内未通知出卖人的,视为标的物的数量或者质量符合约定;但是,对标的物有质量保证期的,适用质量保证期,不适用该二年的规定。

Where no inspection period is agreed, the buyer shall notify the seller within a reasonable period, commencing on the date when the buyer discovered or should have discovered the quantity or quality non-compliance. If the buyer fails to notify within a reasonable period or fails to notify within 2 years, commencing on the date when it received the subject matter, the quantity or quality of the subject matter is deemed to comply with the contract, except that if there is a warranty period in respect of the subject matter, the warranty period applies and supersedes such two year period.

出卖人知道或者应当知道提供的标的物不符合约定的,买受人不受前两款规定的通知时间的限制。

Where the seller knows or should have known the non-compliance of the subject matter, the buyer is not subject to the time limits for notification prescribed in the preceding two paragraphs.

  第六百二十二条 当事人约定的检验期限过短,根据标的物的性质和交易习惯,买受人在检验期限内难以完成全面检验的,该期限仅视为买受人对标的物的外观瑕疵提出异议的期限。

Article 622 Where the inspection period agreed upon by the parties is so short that, based on the nature of the subject matter and usage of trade, it is difficult for the buyer to complete a comprehensive inspection during the inspection period, the period shall be treated only as a period for the buyer to raise an objection to an apparent defect.

约定的检验期限或者质量保证期短于法律、行政法规规定期限的,应当以法律、行政法规规定的期限为准。

If the agreed inspection period or warranty period is shorter than that prescribed by the laws and administrative regulations, the period prescribed by the laws and administrative regulations shall prevail.

  第六百二十三条 当事人对检验期限未作约定,买受人签收的送货单、确认单等载明标的物数量、型号、规格的,推定买受人已经对数量和外观瑕疵进行检验,但是有相关证据足以推翻的除外。

Article 623 Where the parties fail to agree on an inspection period, and the delivery note, acknowledgment, and the like signed by the buyer state the quantity, model, and specifications of the subject matter, the buyer shall be presumed to have made an inspection in respect of quantity and apparent defects, in the absence of sufficient evidence to the contrary.

  第六百二十四条 出卖人依照买受人的指示向第三人交付标的物,出卖人和买受人约定的检验标准与买受人和第三人约定的检验标准不一致的,以出卖人和买受人约定的检验标准为准。

Article 624 Where a seller delivers the subject matter to a third party on the buyer's instructions, and the inspection standards agreed upon by the seller and the buyer are inconsistent with those agreed upon by the buyer and the third party, the inspection standards agreed upon by the seller and the buyer shall prevail.

  第六百二十五条 依照法律、行政法规的规定或者按照当事人的约定,标的物在有效使用年限届满后应予回收的,出卖人负有自行或者委托第三人对标的物予以回收的义务。

Article 625 Where any law or administrative regulation requires, or the parties agree, that the subject matter should be recovered after the expiration of its useful life, the seller shall have the obligation to recover the subject matter in person or authorize a third party to do so.

  第六百二十六条 买受人应当按照约定的数额和支付方式支付价款。对价款的数额和支付方式没有约定或者约定不明确的,适用本法第五百一十条、第五百一十一条第二项和第五项的规定。

Article 626 The buyer shall pay the price according to the agreed amount and payment method. Where the price and payment method are not agreed or the agreement is not clear, the provisions of Article 510 and Article 511(2) and (5) of this Code shall be applied.

  第六百二十七条 买受人应当按照约定的地点支付价款。对支付地点没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,买受人应当在出卖人的营业地支付;但是,约定支付价款以交付标的物或者交付提取标的物单证为条件的,在交付标的物或者交付提取标的物单证的所在地支付。

Article 627 The buyer shall pay the price at the agreed place. Where the place of payment is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 510 of this Code, the buyer shall make payment at the seller's place of business, provided that if the parties agreed that payment shall be conditional upon delivery of the subject matter or the document for taking delivery thereof, payment shall be made at the place where the subject matter, or the document for taking delivery thereof, is delivered.

  第六百二十八条 买受人应当按照约定的时间支付价款。对支付时间没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,买受人应当在收到标的物或者提取标的物单证的同时支付。

Article 628 The buyer shall pay the price at the agreed time. Where the time for payment is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 510 of this Code, the buyer shall make payment at the same time it receives the subject matter or the document for taking delivery thereof.

  第六百二十九条 出卖人多交标的物的,买受人可以接收或者拒绝接收多交的部分。买受人接收多交部分的,按照约定的价格支付价款;买受人拒绝接收多交部分的,应当及时通知出卖人。

Article 629 Where the seller delivers the subject matter in a quantity greater than that agreed in the contract, the buyer may accept or reject the excess quantity. Where the buyer accepts the excess quantity, it shall pay the price as agreed; where the buyer rejects the excess quantity, it shall notify the seller in a timely manner.

  第六百三十条 标的物在交付之前产生的孳息,归出卖人所有;交付之后产生的孳息,归买受人所有。但是,当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 630 The fruits of the subject matter belong to the seller if accrued before delivery, and to the buyer if accrued after delivery, unless otherwise agreed by the parties.

  第六百三十一条 因标的物的主物不符合约定而解除合同的,解除合同的效力及于从物。因标的物的从物不符合约定被解除的,解除的效力不及于主物。

Article 631 Where a contract is rescinded due to non-compliance of any main component of the subject matter, the effect of rescission extends to the ancillary components. Where the contract is rescinded due to non-compliance of any ancillary component of the subject matter, the effect of rescission does not extend to the main components.

  第六百三十二条 标的物为数物,其中一物不符合约定的,买受人可以就该物解除。但是,该物与他物分离使标的物的价值显受损害的,买受人可以就数物解除合同。

Article 632 Where the subject matter comprises of a number of components, one of which does not comply with the contract, the buyer may rescind the portion of the contract in respect of such component, provided that if severance of such component with the other components will significantly diminish the value of the subject matter, the buyer may rescind the contract in respect of such number of components.

  第六百三十三条 出卖人分批交付标的物的,出卖人对其中一批标的物不交付或者交付不符合约定,致使该批标的物不能实现合同目的的,买受人可以就该批标的物解除。

Article 633 Where the seller is to deliver the subject matter in installments, if the seller fails to deliver one installment of the subject matter or the delivery fails to satisfy the terms of the contract so that the said installment cannot realize the contract purpose, the buyer may rescind the portion of the contract in respect thereof.

出卖人不交付其中一批标的物或者交付不符合约定,致使之后其他各批标的物的交付不能实现合同目的的,买受人可以就该批以及之后其他各批标的物解除。

If the seller fails to deliver one installment of the subject matter or the delivery fails to satisfy the terms of the contract so that the delivery of the subsequent installments of subject matter cannot realize the contract purpose, the buyer may rescind the portion of the contract in respect of such installment as well as any subsequent installment.

买受人如果就其中一批标的物解除,该批标的物与其他各批标的物相互依存的,可以就已经交付和未交付的各批标的物解除。

If the buyer rescinds the portion of the contract in respect of a particular installment which is interdependent with all other installments, it may rescind the contract in respect of all delivered and undelivered installments.

  第六百三十四条 分期付款的买受人未支付到期价款的数额达到全部价款的五分之一,经催告后在合理期限内仍未支付到期价款的,出卖人可以请求买受人支付全部价款或者解除合同。

Article 634 In a sale by installment payment, where the buyer fails to make payments as they became due, if the delinquent amount has reached one fifth of the total price, and the payments due fail to be made within a reasonable time limit after a demand, the seller may request payment of the full price from the buyer or rescind the contract.

出卖人解除合同的,可以向买受人请求支付该标的物的使用费。

If the seller rescinds the contract, it may request the buyer to pay a fee for its use of the subject matter.

  第六百三十五条 凭样品买卖的当事人应当封存样品,并可以对样品质量予以说明。出卖人交付的标的物应当与样品及其说明的质量相同。

Article 635 In a sale by sample, the parties shall place the sample under seal, and may specify the quality of the sample. The subject matter delivered by the seller shall comply with the sample as well as the quality specifications.

  第六百三十六条 凭样品买卖的买受人不知道样品有隐蔽瑕疵的,即使交付的标的物与样品相同,出卖人交付的标的物的质量仍然应当符合同种物的通常标准。

Article 636 In a sale by sample, if the buyer is not aware of a latent defect in the sample, the subject matter delivered by the seller shall nevertheless comply with the normal quality standard for a like item, even though the subject matter delivered complies with the sample.

  第六百三十七条 试用买卖的当事人可以约定标的物的试用期限。对试用期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,由出卖人确定。

Article 637 In a sale by trial, the parties may agree on the trial period. Where a trial period is not agreed on or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 510 of this Code, it shall be determined by the seller.

  第六百三十八条 试用买卖的买受人在试用期内可以购买标的物,也可以拒绝购买。试用期限届满,买受人对是否购买标的物未作表示的,视为购买。

Article 638 In a sale by trial, the buyer may either purchase or reject the subject matter during the trial period. At the end of the trial period, the buyer is deemed to have made the purchase if it fails to demonstrate its intent to purchase or reject the subject matter.

试用买卖的买受人在试用期内已经支付部分价款或者对标的物实施出卖、出租、设立担保物权等行为的,视为同意购买。

If the buyer in a sale by trial pays part of the price, or performs an act such as selling, leasing, or creating a security interest on the subject matter during the trial period, the buyer shall be treated as having consented to purchase.

  第六百三十九条 试用买卖的当事人对标的物使用费没有约定或者约定不明确的,出卖人无权请求买受人支付。

Article 639 Where the parties to a sale by trial fails to make an agreement on the expenses of use of the subject matter, or the agreement is not clear, the seller shall have no right to request the buyer to pay.

  第六百四十条 标的物在试用期内毁损、灭失的风险由出卖人承担。

Article 640 The risk of damage to or loss of the subject matter during the trial period shall be borne by the seller.

  第六百四十一条 当事人可以在买卖合同中约定买受人未履行支付价款或者其他义务的,标的物的所有权属于出卖人。

Article 641 The parties may agree in the sales contract that the ownership remains with the seller if the buyer fails to pay the price or perform other obligations.

出卖人对标的物保留的所有权,未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。

The ownership of the subject matter retained by the seller shall not be effective against a third party in good faith without registration.

  第六百四十二条 当事人约定出卖人保留合同标的物的所有权,在标的物所有权转移前,买受人有下列情形之一,造成出卖人损害的,除当事人另有约定外,出卖人有权取回标的物:

Article 642 Where the parties agree that the seller retains the ownership of the subject matter of the contract, and before the ownership of the subject matter is transferred, the buyer has any of the following circumstances that causes damage to the seller, the seller shall have the right to reclaim the subject matter, unless otherwise agreed by the parties:

(一)未按照约定支付价款,经催告后在合理期限内仍未支付;

(1) Failing to pay the price in accordance with the agreement and failing to pay within a reasonable time limit after a demand.

(二)未按照约定完成特定条件;

(2) Failing to fulfill specific conditions as agreed.

(三)将标的物出卖、出质或者作出其他不当处分。

(3) Selling, pledging, or otherwise improperly disposing of the subject matter.

出卖人可以与买受人协商取回标的物;协商不成的,可以参照适用担保物权的实现程序。

The seller may negotiate with the buyer for reclaiming the subject matter; and if the negotiation fails, the realization procedure for security interests may apply mutatis mutandis.

  第六百四十三条 出卖人依据前条第一款的规定取回标的物后,买受人在双方约定或者出卖人指定的合理回赎期限内,消除出卖人取回标的物的事由的,可以请求回赎标的物。

Article 643 Where after a seller has reclaimed the subject matter in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1, the preceding article, the buyer removes the cause for which the seller reclaims the subject matter within a reasonable redemption period agreed by the parties or specified by the seller, the seller may request redemption of the subject matter.

买受人在回赎期限内没有回赎标的物,出卖人可以以合理价格将标的物出卖给第三人,出卖所得价款扣除买受人未支付的价款以及必要费用后仍有剩余的,应当返还买受人;不足部分由买受人清偿。

If the buyer fails to redeem the subject matter within the redemption period, the seller may sell the subject matter to a third party at a reasonable price, recover the price due by the buyer and necessary expenses out of the proceeds of resale, and refund the remainder to the buyer, if any, or request the buyer to cover the shortfall.

  第六百四十四条 招标投标买卖的当事人的权利和义务以及招标投标程序等,依照有关法律、行政法规的规定。

Article 644 In a sale by tender, matters such as the rights and obligations of the parties and the tendering procedure, etc. are governed by the relevant laws and administrative regulations.

  第六百四十五条 拍卖的当事人的权利和义务以及拍卖程序等,依照有关法律、行政法规的规定。

Article 645 In a sale by auction, matters such as the rights and obligations of the parties and the auctioning procedure, etc. are governed by the relevant laws and administrative regulations.

  第六百四十六条 法律对其他有偿合同有规定的,依照其规定;没有规定的,参照适用买卖合同的有关规定。

Article 646 If there are provisions in the law for other onerous contracts, such provisions shall apply; in the absence of such provisions, the provisions on sales contract shall apply mutatis mutandis.

  第六百四十七条 当事人约定易货交易,转移标的物的所有权的,参照适用买卖合同的有关规定。

Article 647 Where the parties agree on a barter transaction involving transfer of ownership of the subject matter, the relevant provisions on sales contracts shall apply mutatis mutandis.

第十章 供用电、水、气、热力合同

Chapter X Contracts for Supply of Power, Water, Gas, or Heat

  第六百四十八条 供用电合同是供电人向用电人供电,用电人支付电费的合同。

Article 648 A power supply contract is a contract whereby the power supplier supplies power to the power customer, and the power consumer pay an electricity fee.

向社会公众供电的供电人,不得拒绝用电人合理的订立合同要求。

A power supplier who supplies power to the public shall not reject a user's reasonable request for contracting.

  第六百四十九条 供用电合同的内容一般包括供电的方式、质量、时间,用电容量、地址、性质,计量方式,电价、电费的结算方式,供用电设施的维护责任等条款。

Article 649 The contents of a power supply contract generally include terms such as the method, quality, and time of power supply, and the capacity, location and nature of power use, and the metering method, electricity rate, the method of settlement of electricity fees, and the responsibility for maintenance of the power supply and use facilities, etc..

  第六百五十条 供用电合同的履行地点,按照当事人约定;当事人没有约定或者约定不明确的,供电设施的产权分界处为履行地点。

Article 650 The place of performance of a power supply contract shall be the place agreed upon by the parties, and if there is no agreement or the agreement is not clear, the place of performance shall be the boundary where ownership of the power supply facilities is divided.

  第六百五十一条 供电人应当按照国家规定的供电质量标准和约定安全供电。供电人未按照国家规定的供电质量标准和约定安全供电,造成用电人损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 651 The power supplier shall supply power in a safe manner in accordance with the standards for power supply stipulated by the State and with the terms of the contract. Where the power supplier fails to supply power in a safe manner in accordance with the standards for power supply stipulated by the State and with the terms of the contract, thereby causing losses to the power customer, it shall be liable in damages.

  第六百五十二条 供电人因供电设施计划检修、临时检修、依法限电或者用电人违法用电等原因,需要中断供电时,应当按照国家有关规定事先通知用电人;未事先通知用电人中断供电,造成用电人损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 652 Where the power supplier needs to suspend the power supply due to reasons such as planned maintenance or provisional inspection and repair of the power supply facilities, legally restriction on power, or illegal use of power by the power customer, etc., it shall notify the power customer in advance in accordance with relevant provisions issued by the state. Where the power supplier suspends power supply without notifying the power customer in advance, thereby causing losses to the power customer, it shall be liable in damages.

  第六百五十三条 因自然灾害等原因断电,供电人应当按照国家有关规定及时抢修;未及时抢修,造成用电人损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 653 Where the power supply is suspended due to a natural disaster or other causes, the power supplier shall make repair in a timely manner in accordance with relevant provisions issued by the state; and where the power supplier fails to make repair in a timely manner, thereby causing loss to the power customer, it shall be liable in damages.

  第六百五十四条 用电人应当按照国家有关规定和当事人的约定及时支付电费。用电人逾期不支付电费的,应当按照约定支付违约金。经催告用电人在合理期限内仍不支付电费和违约金的,供电人可以按照国家规定的程序中止供电。

Article 654 The power customer shall, in a timely manner, pay the electricity fees in accordance with relevant provisions issued by the state and with the terms of the contract. Where the power customer delays in paying the electricity fees, it shall pay breach of contract damages in accordance with the contract. Where the power customer fails to pay the electricity fees and breach of contract damages within a reasonable time limit after receiving demand for payment, the power supplier may shut off the power supply in accordance with the procedure prescribed by the state.

供电人依据前款规定中止供电的,应当事先通知用电人。

If a power supplier suspends power supply in accordance with the preceding paragraph, it shall notify the power customer in advance.

  第六百五十五条 用电人应当按照国家有关规定和当事人的约定安全、节约和计划用电。用电人未按照国家有关规定和当事人的约定用电,造成供电人损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 655 The power customer shall use power in a safe, conservative, and planned manner in accordance with the relevant provisions issued by the state and with the terms of the contract. Where the power customer fails to use power in accordance with relevant provisions issued by the state and the terms of the contract, causing losses to the power supplier, it shall be liable in damages.

  第六百五十六条 供用水、供用气、供用热力合同,参照适用供用电合同的有关规定。

Article 656 The provisions on power supply contracts shall apply mutatis mutandis to a contract for the supply of water, gas or heat.

第十一章 赠与合同

Chapter XI Gift Contracts

  第六百五十七条 赠与合同是赠与人将自己的财产无偿给予受赠人,受赠人表示接受赠与的合同。

Article 657 A gift contract is a contract whereby the donor conveys his property to the donee gratuitously and the donee expresses his acceptance of the gift.

  第六百五十八条 赠与人在赠与财产的权利转移之前可以撤销赠与。

Article 658 Prior to the transfer of rights to the gift property, the donor may revoke the gift.

经过公证的赠与合同或者依法不得撤销的具有救灾、扶贫、助残等公益、道德义务性质的赠与合同,不适用前款规定。

The provisions of the preceding paragraph do not apply to any gift contract which has been notarized, or any gift contract in the nature of disaster relief, poverty alleviation, disability assistance, or any other public interest or moral obligation of which the law precludes revocation.

  第六百五十九条 赠与的财产依法需要办理登记或者其他手续的,应当办理有关手续。

Article 659 Where conveyance of the gifted property is subject to such procedures as registration according to the law, the relevant procedures shall be performed.

  第六百六十条 经过公证的赠与合同或者依法不得撤销的具有救灾、扶贫、助残等公益、道德义务性质的赠与合同,赠与人不交付赠与财产的,受赠人可以请求交付。

Article 660 In the case of a gift contract which has been notarized, or a gift contract in the nature of disaster relief, poverty alleviation, disability assistance, or any other public interest or moral obligation of which the law precludes revocation, if the donor fails to deliver the gift property, the donee may request delivery.

依据前款规定应当交付的赠与财产因赠与人故意或者重大过失致使毁损、灭失的,赠与人应当承担赔偿责任。

Where the gifted property required to be delivered by the provisions of the preceding paragraph is damaged or lost due to any intention or gross negligence of the donor, the donor shall be liable in damages.

  第六百六十一条 赠与可以附义务。

Article 661 A gift may be conditional on an obligation.

赠与附义务的,受赠人应当按照约定履行义务。

Where the gift is conditional on an obligation, the donee shall perform his obligations in accordance with the contract.

  第六百六十二条 赠与的财产有瑕疵的,赠与人不承担责任。附义务的赠与,赠与的财产有瑕疵的,赠与人在附义务的限度内承担与出卖人相同的责任。

Article 662 The donor is not liable for any defect in the gifted property. Where the gift is conditional on an obligation, and the gifted property is defective, the donor has the same warranty obligations as a seller to the extent of the prescribed obligations.

赠与人故意不告知瑕疵或者保证无瑕疵,造成受赠人损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。

Where the donor intentionally fails to notify the donee of the defect or warrants the absence of any defect, thereby causing losses to the donee, he or she shall be liable in damages.

  第六百六十三条 受赠人有下列情形之一的,赠与人可以撤销赠与:

Article 663 Where the donee has any of the following circumstances, the donor may revoke the gift:

(一)严重侵害赠与人或者赠与人近亲属的合法权益;

(1) Seriously harming the lawful rights and interests of the donor or any of his or her close relatives.

(二)对赠与人有扶养义务而不履行;

(2) Failing to perform support obligations owed to the donor.

(三)不履行赠与合同约定的义务。

(3) Failing to perform the obligations under the gift contract.

赠与人的撤销权,自知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起一年内行使。

The donor shall exercise its revocation right within one year after he or she knows, or should have known, the cause of revocation.

  第六百六十四条 因受赠人的违法行为致使赠与人死亡或者丧失民事行为能力的,赠与人的继承人或者法定代理人可以撤销赠与。

Article 664 Where the donor is deceased or incapacitated due to the donee's illegal act, his successor or legal representative may revoke the gift.

赠与人的继承人或者法定代理人的撤销权,自知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起六个月内行使。

The successor or legal representative of the donor shall exercise the right of revocation within six months after he or she knows, or should have known, the cause of revocation.

  第六百六十五条 撤销权人撤销赠与的,可以向受赠人请求返还赠与的财产。

Article 665 Upon revocation of the gift, the person with the revocation right may request restitution of the gifted property from the donee.

  第六百六十六条 赠与人的经济状况显著恶化,严重影响其生产经营或者家庭生活的,可以不再履行赠与义务。

Article 666 If the donor's economic situation is deteriorated significantly, seriously impacting on his business operation or family life, he or she may no longer perform the gift obligations.

第十二章 借款合同

Chapter XII Contracts for Loan of Money

  第六百六十七条 借款合同是借款人向贷款人借款,到期返还借款并支付利息的合同。

Article 667 A contract for loan of money is a contract whereby the borrower borrows a sum of money from the lender, and repays the borrowed money with interest thereon when it becomes due.

  第六百六十八条 借款合同应当采用书面形式,但是自然人之间借款另有约定的除外。

Article 668 A contract for loan of money shall be in written form, except where the loan is between natural persons who have agreed otherwise.

借款合同的内容一般包括借款种类、币种、用途、数额、利率、期限和还款方式等条款。

The contents of a contract for loan of money generally include the terms such as the loan's type, currency, purpose, amount, interest rate, term, and method of repayment, etc.

  第六百六十九条 订立借款合同,借款人应当按照贷款人的要求提供与借款有关的业务活动和财务状况的真实情况。

Article 669 In entering into a contract for loan of money, the borrower shall provide true information concerning its business operation and financial condition in connection with the loan as required by the lender.

  第六百七十条 借款的利息不得预先在本金中扣除。利息预先在本金中扣除的,应当按照实际借款数额返还借款并计算利息。

Article 670 No interest shall be deducted from the principal in advance. Where any interest amount is deducted from the principal in advance, the repayment of principal and calculation of interest shall be based on the actual amount borrowed.

  第六百七十一条 贷款人未按照约定的日期、数额提供借款,造成借款人损失的,应当赔偿损失。

Article 671 Where the lender fails to make the loan amount available on the agreed date and in the agreed amount, thereby causing losses to the borrower, it shall pay damages.

借款人未按照约定的日期、数额收取借款的,应当按照约定的日期、数额支付利息。

Where the borrower fails to draw down on the agreed date and in the agreed amount, it shall nevertheless pay the interest on the agreed date and in the agreed amount.

  第六百七十二条 贷款人按照约定可以检查、监督借款的使用情况。借款人应当按照约定向贷款人定期提供有关财务会计报表或者其他资料。

Article 672 The lender may examine and monitor the application of the proceeds in accordance with the contract. The borrower shall periodically provide the lender with related financial statements or other materials in accordance with the contract.

  第六百七十三条 借款人未按照约定的借款用途使用借款的,贷款人可以停止发放借款、提前收回借款或者解除合同。

Article 673 Where the borrower fails to use the proceeds for the prescribed purpose, the lender may withhold funding, call the loan, or rescind the contract.

  第六百七十四条 借款人应当按照约定的期限支付利息。对支付利息的期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定,借款期间不满一年的,应当在返还借款时一并支付;借款期间一年以上的,应当在每届满一年时支付,剩余期间不满一年的,应当在返还借款时一并支付。

Article 674 The borrower shall pay the interest within the agreed time limit. Where the time limit for interest payment is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 510 of this Code, if the loan period is less than one year, the interest shall be paid together with the principal at the time of repayment; if the loan period is one year or longer, the interest shall be paid at the end of a year, and where the remaining period is less than one year, the interest shall be paid together with the principal at the time of repayment.

  第六百七十五条 借款人应当按照约定的期限返还借款。对借款期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,借款人可以随时返还;贷款人可以催告借款人在合理期限内返还。

Article 675 The borrower shall repay the principal within the agreed time limit. Where the loan term is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 510 of this Code, the borrower may repay at any time; and the lender may demand repayment from the borrower within a reasonable time limit.

  第六百七十六条 借款人未按照约定的期限返还借款的,应当按照约定或者国家有关规定支付逾期利息。

Article 676 Where the borrower fails to repay the loan at the agreed time limit, it shall pay delayed repayment interest in accordance with the contract or the relevant provisions of the State.

  第六百七十七条 借款人提前返还借款的,除当事人另有约定外,应当按照实际借款的期间计算利息。

Article 677 Where the borrower prepays the loan, unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the interest shall be calculated based on the actual period of loan.

  第六百七十八条 借款人可以在还款期限届满前向贷款人申请展期;贷款人同意的,可以展期。

Article 678 The borrower may apply to the lender for extension of the loan term before its maturity. Upon consent by the lender, the loan term may be extended.

  第六百七十九条 自然人之间的借款合同,自贷款人提供借款时成立。

Article 679 A contract for loan of money between natural persons is formed at the time the lender makes the loan amount available.

  第六百八十条 禁止高利放贷,借款的利率不得违反国家有关规定。

Article 680 Usury shall be prohibited, and the interest rate on a loan shall not contravene the relevant provisions issued by the state.

借款合同对支付利息没有约定的,视为没有利息。

The absence of a stipulation about payment of interest in a contract for loan of money shall be treated as charging no interest.

借款合同对支付利息约定不明确,当事人不能达成补充协议的,按照当地或者当事人的交易方式、交易习惯、市场利率等因素确定利息;自然人之间借款的,视为没有利息。

If a contract for loan of money is not clear in terms of payment of interest, and the parties are unable to reach a supplementary agreement, the interest shall be determined in accordance with local or the parties' transaction methods, usage of trade, market interest rates, and other factors; and a loan between natural persons shall be treated as bearing no interest.

第十三章 保证合同

Chapter XIII Contracts of Suretyship

第一节 一般规定

Section 1 General Rules

  第六百八十一条 保证合同是为保障债权的实现,保证人和债权人约定,当债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的情形时,保证人履行债务或者承担责任的合同。

Article 681 "Contract of suretyship" means a contract by which a surety performs the obligation or assumes the responsibility under an agreement between the surety and the creditor in order to protect the realization of the obligation, in case the debtor fails to perform the obligation due, or the circumstances agreed upon by the parties occur.

  第六百八十二条 保证合同是主债权债务合同的从合同。主债权债务合同无效的,保证合同无效,但是法律另有规定的除外。

Article 682 A contract of suretyship is a contract accessory to the principal obligation contract. If the principal obligation contract is void, the contract of suretyship is void, except as otherwise provided by the law.

保证合同被确认无效后,债务人、保证人、债权人有过错的,应当根据其过错各自承担相应的民事责任。

After a contract of suretyship is nullified, the debtor, the surety, and the creditor, if at fault, shall respectively bear civil liability according to their fault.

  第六百八十三条 机关法人不得为保证人,但是经国务院批准为使用外国政府或者国际经济组织贷款进行转贷的除外。

Article 683 A state organ legal person may not be a surety, except for sub-lending of loans from foreign governments or international economic organizations approved by the State Council.

以公益为目的的非营利法人、非法人组织不得为保证人。

A non-profit legal person or unincorporated organization in public interest shall not be a surety.

  第六百八十四条 保证合同的内容一般包括被保证的主债权的种类、数额,债务人履行债务的期限,保证的方式、范围和期间等条款。

Article 684 The contents of a contract of suretyship shall generally include the category and amount of the principal obligation secured by the suretyship; the time limit for the debtor to pay the obligation; and the method, scope, and period of the suretyship.

  第六百八十五条 保证合同可以是单独订立的书面合同,也可以是主债权债务合同中的保证条款。

Article 685 A contract of suretyship may be a separate written contract, or a suretyship clause in the principal obligation contract.

第三人单方以书面形式向债权人作出保证,债权人接收且未提出异议的,保证合同成立。

If a third party unilaterally gives suretyship to the creditor in written form, and the creditor receives the writing without raising an objection, the contract of suretyship is formed.

  第六百八十六条 保证的方式包括一般保证和连带责任保证。

Article 686 Suretyship shall be divided into ordinary suretyship and joint and several suretyship according to methods.

当事人在保证合同中对保证方式没有约定或者约定不明确的,按照一般保证承担保证责任。

If the parties fail to agree on the method of suretyship in the contract of suretyship, or the agreement is not clear, the suretyship shall be treated as ordinary suretyship.

  第六百八十七条 当事人在保证合同中约定,债务人不能履行债务时,由保证人承担保证责任的,为一般保证。

Article 687 Ordinary suretyship takes place where the parties agree in the contract of suretyship that the surety assumes suretyship liability when the debtor fails to perform the obligation.

一般保证的保证人在主合同纠纷未经审判或者仲裁,并就债务人财产依法强制执行仍不能履行债务前,有权拒绝向债权人承担保证责任,但是有下列情形之一的除外:

A surety under ordinary suretyship shall have the right to refuse to assume suretyship liability to the creditor before the dispute over the principal contract goes to trial or arbitration and the obligation fails to be performed despite enforcement legally executed against the property of the debtor, except under any of the following circumstances.

(一)债务人下落不明,且无财产可供执行;

(1) The whereabouts of the debtor are unknown, and no property is available for enforcement.

(二)人民法院已经受理债务人破产案件;

(2) The people's court has accepted the debtor bankruptcy case.

(三)债权人有证据证明债务人的财产不足以履行全部债务或者丧失履行债务能力;

(3) The creditor has evidence that the debtor has insufficient property to perform the whole obligation or becomes insolvent.

(四)保证人书面表示放弃本款规定的权利。

(4) The surety states a waiver of the right under this paragraph in written form.

  第六百八十八条 当事人在保证合同中约定保证人和债务人对债务承担连带责任的,为连带责任保证。

Article 688 Joint and several suretyship takes place where the parties agree in the contract of suretyship that the surety and the debtor are jointly and severally liable for the obligation.

连带责任保证的债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的情形时,债权人可以请求债务人履行债务,也可以请求保证人在其保证范围内承担保证责任。

When a debtor under joint and several suretyship fails to perform the obligation due, or the circumstances agreed upon by the parties occur, the creditor may request the debtor to perform the obligation, or request the surety to assume suretyship liability to the extent of its suretyship.

  第六百八十九条 保证人可以要求债务人提供反担保。

Article 689 A surety may require the debtor to provide counter security.

  第六百九十条 保证人与债权人可以协商订立最高额保证的合同,约定在最高债权额限度内就一定期间连续发生的债权提供保证。

Article 690 A surety and the creditor may negotiate a contract of maximum-amount suretyship, agreeing on providing suretyship for the obligations arising successively within a certain period to the extent of the maximum amount of obligations.

最高额保证除适用本章规定外,参照适用本法第二编最高额抵押权的有关规定。

The provisions on maximum-mortgages in Book Two of this Code shall apply mutatis mutandis to maximum-amount suretyship, in addition to being governed by the provisions of this Chapter.

第二节 保证责任

Section 2 Suretyship Liability

  第六百九十一条 保证的范围包括主债权及其利息、违约金、损害赔偿金和实现债权的费用。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。

Article 691 The scope of suretyship covers the principal obligation and its interest, liquidated damages, damages, and the cost of realizing the obligation, unless otherwise agreed by the parties.

  第六百九十二条 保证期间是确定保证人承担保证责任的期间,不发生中止、中断和延长。

Article 692 The period for suretyship is a period to determine that the surety is subject to suretyship liability, without any suspension, interruption, or extension.

债权人与保证人可以约定保证期间,但是约定的保证期间早于主债务履行期限或者与主债务履行期限同时届满的,视为没有约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,保证期间为主债务履行期限届满之日起六个月。

A creditor and the surety may agree on a period for suretyship, but if the agreed period for suretyship precedes, or expires at the same time as, the time limit for performance of the principal obligation, the period shall be treated as having never been agreed; and absent agreement, or if the agreement is not clear, the period for suretyship shall be six months from the expiration of the time limit for performance of the principal obligation.

债权人与债务人对主债务履行期限没有约定或者约定不明确的,保证期间自债权人请求债务人履行债务的宽限期届满之日起计算。

If a creditor and the debtor fail to agree on a time limit for performance of the principal obligation, or the agreement is not clear, the period for suretyship shall be counted from the expiration of the grace period when the creditor requests the debtor to perform the obligation.

  第六百九十三条 一般保证的债权人未在保证期间对债务人提起诉讼或者申请仲裁的,保证人不再承担保证责任。

Article 693 Where a creditor secured by ordinary suretyship fails to institute an action or apply for arbitration against the debtor within the period for suretyship, the surety shall cease to assume the suretyship liability.

连带责任保证的债权人未在保证期间请求保证人承担保证责任的,保证人不再承担保证责任。

If a creditor secured by joint and several suretyship fails to request the surety to assume suretyship liability during the period for suretyship, the surety shall cease to assume the suretyship liability.

  第六百九十四条 一般保证的债权人在保证期间届满前对债务人提起诉讼或者申请仲裁的,从保证人拒绝承担保证责任的权利消灭之日起,开始计算保证债务的诉讼时效。

Article 694 Where a creditor secured by ordinary suretyship institutes an action or applies for arbitration against the debtor before the expiration of the period for suretyship, the extinctive prescription for the suretyship obligation shall commence to run from the date when the right of the surety to refuse to assume the suretyship liability is extinguished.

连带责任保证的债权人在保证期间届满前请求保证人承担保证责任的,从债权人请求保证人承担保证责任之日起,开始计算保证债务的诉讼时效。

If a creditor secured by joint and several suretyship requests the surety to assume the suretyship liability before the expiration of the period for suretyship, the extinctive prescription for the suretyship obligation shall commence to run from the date when the creditor so requests.

  第六百九十五条 债权人和债务人未经保证人书面同意,协商变更主债权债务合同内容,减轻债务的,保证人仍对变更后的债务承担保证责任;加重债务的,保证人对加重的部分不承担保证责任。

Article 695 When a creditor and the debtor negotiate the modification of the contract for the principal obligation without the written consent of the surety, the surety shall remain subject to suretyship liability for the obligation as modified, if the obligation is reduced, or be exempt from suretyship liability for the aggravation, if the obligation is aggravated.

债权人和债务人变更主债权债务合同的履行期限,未经保证人书面同意的,保证期间不受影响。

If a creditor and the debtor modify the time limit for performance of the contract for the principal obligation, without the written consent of the surety, the period for suretyship is not affected.

  第六百九十六条 债权人转让全部或者部分债权,未通知保证人的,该转让对保证人不发生效力。

Article 696 Where a creditor assigns all or part of the claim without notifying the surety, the assignment shall be without effect against the surety.

保证人与债权人约定禁止债权转让,债权人未经保证人书面同意转让债权的,保证人对受让人不再承担保证责任。

When a surety and the creditor agree on prohibiting the assignment of the claim, if the creditor assigns the claim without the written consent of the surety, the surety shall cease to assume suretyship liability to the assignee.

  第六百九十七条 债权人未经保证人书面同意,允许债务人转移全部或者部分债务,保证人对未经其同意转移的债务不再承担保证责任,但是债权人和保证人另有约定的除外。

Article 697 Where the creditor allows the debtor to delegate all or part of the obligation without the written consent of the surety, the surety shall cease to assume suretyship liability for the obligation so delegated, unless otherwise agreed by the creditor and the surety.

第三人加入债务的,保证人的保证责任不受影响。

If a third party joins in the obligation, the suretyship liability to which the surety is subject is not affected.

  第六百九十八条 一般保证的保证人在主债务履行期限届满后,向债权人提供债务人可供执行财产的真实情况,债权人放弃或者怠于行使权利致使该财产不能被执行的,保证人在其提供可供执行财产的价值范围内不再承担保证责任。

Article 698 Where a surety under ordinary suretyship provides the creditor with authentic information on the property of the debtor available for enforcement after the expiration of the time limit for performance of the principal obligation, and the creditor waives or is remiss in exercising its right resulting in impossibility of enforcement against the property, the surety shall cease to assume suretyship liability to the extent of the value of the property on which it provides information.

  第六百九十九条 同一债务有两个以上保证人的,保证人应当按照保证合同约定的保证份额,承担保证责任;没有约定保证份额的,债权人可以请求任何一个保证人在其保证范围内承担保证责任。

Article 699 Where there are not less than two sureties for the same obligation, the sureties shall assume suretyship liability in accordance with the share of suretyship agreed in the contract of suretyship; and absent agreement on the share of suretyship, the creditor may request any surety to assume suretyship liability to the extent of its suretyship.

  第七百条 保证人承担保证责任后,除当事人另有约定外,有权在其承担保证责任的范围内向债务人追偿,享有债权人对债务人的权利,但是不得损害债权人的利益。

Article 700 Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, a surety who has assumed the suretyship liability shall have the right to reimbursement from the debtor to the extent of the suretyship liability it has assumed and be subrogated to the rights of the creditor against the debtor, without prejudice to the interests of the creditor.

  第七百零一条 保证人可以主张债务人对债权人的抗辩。债务人放弃抗辩的,保证人仍有权向债权人主张抗辩。

Article 701 A surety may raise defenses the debtor would have raised against the creditor. If the debtor renounces the defenses, the surety shall nevertheless have the right to raise the defenses against the creditor.

  第七百零二条 债务人对债权人享有抵销权或者撤销权的,保证人可以在相应范围内拒绝承担保证责任。

Article 702 Where the debtor has the right to set-off or revocatory action against the creditor, the surety may refuse to assume suretyship liability to the corresponding extent.

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