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中华人民共和国民法典 合同编(下)(中英对照)
2020-07-08

第十四章 租赁合同

Chapter XIV Leasing Contracts

  第七百零三条 租赁合同是出租人将租赁物交付承租人使用、收益,承租人支付租金的合同。

Article 703 A leasing contract is a contract whereby the lessor delivers to the lessee the leased property for it to use or accrue benefit from, and the lessee pays the rent.

  第七百零四条 租赁合同的内容一般包括租赁物的名称、数量、用途、租赁期限、租金及其支付期限和方式、租赁物维修等条款。

Article 704 The contents of a leasing contract generally include terms such as the name, quantity and purpose of the leased property, lease term, amount of rent, time and method of rent payment, as well as maintenance and repair of the leased property, etc.

  第七百零五条 租赁期限不得超过二十年。超过二十年的,超过部分无效。

Article 705 The lease term may not exceed twenty years. If the lease term exceeds twenty years, the excess is void.

租赁期限届满,当事人可以续订租赁合同;但是,约定的租赁期限自续订之日起不得超过二十年。

At the end of the lease term, the parties may renew the lease, provided that the renewed term may not exceed twenty years commencing on the date of renewal.

  第七百零六条 当事人未依照法律、行政法规规定办理租赁合同登记备案手续的,不影响合同的效力。

Article 706 Where the parties fail to perform the registration and filing procedures for the leasing contract in accordance with the laws and administrative regulations, the validity of the contract is not affected.

  第七百零七条 租赁期限六个月以上的,应当采用书面形式。当事人未采用书面形式,无法确定租赁期限的,视为不定期租赁。

Article 707 Where the lease term is six months or longer, the lease shall be in writing. If the parties fail to adopt a writing form, rendering the determination of a lease term impossible, the lease is deemed an indeterminate-term lease.

  第七百零八条 出租人应当按照约定将租赁物交付承租人,并在租赁期限内保持租赁物符合约定的用途。

Article 708 The lessor shall deliver the leased property to the lessee in accordance with the contract and shall, during the lease term, keep the leased property fit for the agreed purpose.

  第七百零九条 承租人应当按照约定的方法使用租赁物。对租赁物的使用方法没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,应当根据租赁物的性质使用。

Article 709 The lessee shall use the leased property in the agreed manner. Where the manner of use of the leased property is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 510 of this Code, the leased property shall be used in a manner consistent with its nature.

  第七百一十条 承租人按照约定的方法或者根据租赁物的性质使用租赁物,致使租赁物受到损耗的,不承担赔偿责任。

Article 710 Where the lessee uses the leased property in the agreed manner or in a manner consistent with its nature, thereby causing wear and tear to the leased property, it is not liable in damages.

  第七百一十一条 承租人未按照约定的方法或者未根据租赁物的性质使用租赁物,致使租赁物受到损失的,出租人可以解除合同并请求赔偿损失。

Article 711 Where the lessee fails to use the leased property in the agreed manner or in a manner consistent with its nature, thereby causing damage to it, the lessor may rescind the contract and claim damages.

  第七百一十二条 出租人应当履行租赁物的维修义务,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 712 The lessor shall perform the obligations of maintenance and repair of the leased property, except otherwise agreed by the parties.

  第七百一十三条 承租人在租赁物需要维修时可以请求出租人在合理期限内维修。出租人未履行维修义务的,承租人可以自行维修,维修费用由出租人负担。因维修租赁物影响承租人使用的,应当相应减少租金或者延长租期。

Article 713 Where the leased property needs maintenance or repair, the lessee may require the lessor to perform maintenance or repair within a reasonable time limit. If the lessor fails to fulfill its obligations of maintenance or repair, the lessee may maintain or repair the leased property on its own at the lessor's expense. Where the lessee's use of the leased property is impaired due to maintenance or repair thereof, the rent shall be reduced or the lease term shall be extended accordingly.

因承租人的过错致使租赁物需要维修的,出租人不承担前款规定的维修义务。

If the leased property needs repairing through the fault of the lessee, the lessor shall be exempt from the repair obligation specified in the preceding paragraph.

  第七百一十四条 承租人应当妥善保管租赁物,因保管不善造成租赁物毁损、灭失的,应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 714 The lessee shall keep the leased property with due care and shall be liable in damages if the leased property is damaged or lost due to improper care.

  第七百一十五条 承租人经出租人同意,可以对租赁物进行改善或者增设他物。

Article 715 Subject to consent of the lessor, the lessee may make improvement on or addition to the leased property.

承租人未经出租人同意,对租赁物进行改善或者增设他物的,出租人可以请求承租人恢复原状或者赔偿损失。

If the lessee makes improvement on or addition to the leased property without consent of the lessor, the lessor may request the lessee to restore the leased property to its original condition or claim compensation for the losses.

  第七百一十六条 承租人经出租人同意,可以将租赁物转租给第三人。承租人转租的,承租人与出租人之间的租赁合同继续有效;第三人造成租赁物损失的,承租人应当赔偿损失。

Article 716 Subject to consent of the lessor, the lessee may sublease the leased property to a third party. Where the lessee subleases the leased property, the leasing contract between the lessee and the lessor remains valid, and if the third party causes damage to the leased property, the lessee shall compensate for the losses.

承租人未经出租人同意转租的,出租人可以解除合同。

Where the lessee subleases the leased property without the consent of the lessor, the lessor may rescind the contract.

  第七百一十七条 承租人经出租人同意将租赁物转租给第三人,转租期限超过承租人剩余租赁期限的,超过部分的约定对出租人不具有法律约束力,但是出租人与承租人另有约定的除外。

Article 717 Where a lessee subleases the leased property to a third party with the consent of the lessor under a sublease term in excess of the remaining lease term in favor of the lessee, the agreement in connection with the excess shall be without legal binding force on the lessor, unless otherwise agreed by the lessor and the lessee.

  第七百一十八条 出租人知道或者应当知道承租人转租,但是在六个月内未提出异议的,视为出租人同意转租。

Article 718 Where a lessor knows or should have known the sublease by the lessee without raising an objection within six months, the lessor shall be treated as giving consent to the sublease.

  第七百一十九条 承租人拖欠租金的,次承租人可以代承租人支付其欠付的租金和违约金,但是转租合同对出租人不具有法律约束力的除外。

Article 719 Where a lessee is in default on rent, the sublessee may pay the rent and liquidated damages owed on behalf of the lessee, unless the sublease contract is without legal binding force on the lessor.

次承租人代为支付的租金和违约金,可以充抵次承租人应当向承租人支付的租金;超出其应付的租金数额的,可以向承租人追偿。

The rent and liquidated damages so paid may be set off against the rent payable by the sublessee to the lessee; and the excess over the rent payable by the sublessee may be recovered from the lessee.

  第七百二十条 在租赁期限内因占有、使用租赁物获得的收益,归承租人所有,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 720 During the lease term, any benefit accrued from the possession or use of the leased property belongs to the lessee, except otherwise agreed by the parties.

  第七百二十一条 承租人应当按照约定的期限支付租金。对支付租金的期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定,租赁期限不满一年的,应当在租赁期限届满时支付;租赁期限一年以上的,应当在每届满一年时支付,剩余期限不满一年的,应当在租赁期限届满时支付。

Article 721 The lessee shall pay the rent at the agreed time. Where the time of payment is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 510 of this Code, the rent shall be paid at the end of the lease term if it is less than one year; if the lease term is one year or longer, the rent shall be paid at the end of each annual period, and where the remaining period is less than one year, the rent shall be paid at the end of the lease term.

  第七百二十二条 承租人无正当理由未支付或者迟延支付租金的,出租人可以请求承租人在合理期限内支付;承租人逾期不支付的,出租人可以解除合同。

Article 722 Where the lessee fails to pay or delays in paying the rent without any reason, the lessor may request the lessee to pay the rent within a reasonable time limit; and if the lessee fails to pay the rent at the end of such time limit, the lessor may rescind the contract.

  第七百二十三条 因第三人主张权利,致使承租人不能对租赁物使用、收益的,承租人可以请求减少租金或者不支付租金。

Article 723 If due to any claim by a third party, the lessee is unable to use or accrue benefit from the leased property, the lessee may require reduction in rent or refuse to pay rent.

第三人主张权利的,承租人应当及时通知出租人。

In case of any claim by a third party, the lessee shall notify the lessor in a timely manner.

  第七百二十四条 有下列情形之一,非因承租人原因致使租赁物无法使用的,承租人可以解除合同:

Article 724 Under any of the following circumstances, a lessee may rescind the contract if the leased property is rendered unusable not by the lessee:

(一)租赁物被司法机关或者行政机关依法查封、扣押;

(1) The leased property is seized or impounded by the judicial or administrative authority according to the law.

(二)租赁物权属有争议;

(2) The ownership of the leased property is in dispute.

(三)租赁物具有违反法律、行政法规关于使用条件的强制性规定情形。

(3) The leased property has circumstances in violation of the mandatory conditions for use required by the laws and administrative regulations.

  第七百二十五条 租赁物在承租人按照租赁合同占有期限内发生所有权变动的,不影响租赁合同的效力。

Article 725 Any change to the ownership of the leased property when the lessee is in possession under the leasing contract does not affect the validity of the leasing contract.

  第七百二十六条 出租人出卖租赁房屋的,应当在出卖之前的合理期限内通知承租人,承租人享有以同等条件优先购买的权利;但是,房屋按份共有人行使优先购买权或者出租人将房屋出卖给近亲属的除外。

Article 726 Where the lessor is to sell a leased property, it shall give the lessee a notice within a reasonable time limit before the sale, and the lessee has the right of first refusal under the same conditions, unless a divided co-owner of the property exercises the right of first refusal, or the lessor sells the property to any of its close relative.

出租人履行通知义务后,承租人在十五日内未明确表示购买的,视为承租人放弃优先购买权。

If a lessee fails to explicitly state its intention to buy within fifteen days after the lessor performs its obligation to give notice, the lessee shall be treated as having waived the right of first refusal.

  第七百二十七条 出租人委托拍卖人拍卖租赁房屋的,应当在拍卖五日前通知承租人。承租人未参加拍卖的,视为放弃优先购买权。

Article 727 Where a lessor entrusts an auctioneer with the auction of the leased property, the lessor shall notify the lessee five days before the auction. If the lessee fails to participate in the auction, the lessee shall be treated as having waived the right of first refusal.

  第七百二十八条 出租人未通知承租人或者有其他妨害承租人行使优先购买权情形的,承租人可以请求出租人承担赔偿责任。但是,出租人与第三人订立的房屋买卖合同的效力不受影响。

Article 728 Where a lessor fails to notify the lessee or otherwise interferes with the lessee exercising the right of first refusal, the lessee may claim damages from the lessor. However, the validity of the property sale contract entered into between the lessor and a third party is not affected.

  第七百二十九条 因不可归责于承租人的事由,致使租赁物部分或者全部毁损、灭失的,承租人可以请求减少租金或者不支付租金;因租赁物部分或者全部毁损、灭失,致使不能实现合同目的的,承租人可以解除合同。

Article 729 Where the leased property is damaged or lost in part or in whole due to any reason not attributable to the lessee, the lessee may request reduction in rent or refuse to pay rent; where the purpose of the contract cannot be achieved due to damage to or loss of the leased property in part or in whole, the lessee may rescind the contract.

  第七百三十条 当事人对租赁期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,视为不定期租赁;当事人可以随时解除合同,但是应当在合理期限之前通知对方。

Article 730 Where the term of a lease is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 510 of this Code, such lease is deemed an indeterminate-term lease. Either party may rescind the contract at any time, giving the other party a reasonable notice.

  第七百三十一条 租赁物危及承租人的安全或者健康的,即使承租人订立合同时明知该租赁物质量不合格,承租人仍然可以随时解除合同。

Article 731 Where the leased property endangers the safety or health of the lessee, the lessee may rescind the contract at any time even if the lessee knows the leased property does not meet the quality requirements when concluding the contract.

  第七百三十二条 承租人在房屋租赁期限内死亡的,与其生前共同居住的人或者共同经营人可以按照原租赁合同租赁该房屋。

Article 732 Where the lessee is deceased during the lease term of the leased property, the person living with the lessee, or the lessee's co-owner of the business, while the lessee is alive may continue leasing it on the terms of the original leasing contract.

  第七百三十三条 租赁期限届满,承租人应当返还租赁物。返还的租赁物应当符合按照约定或者根据租赁物的性质使用后的状态。

Article 733 The lessee shall return the leased property at the end of the lease term. The returned leased property shall be in a condition resulting from its use in the agreed manner or in a manner consistent with its nature.

  第七百三十四条 租赁期限届满,承租人继续使用租赁物,出租人没有提出异议的,原租赁合同继续有效,但是租赁期限为不定期。

Article 734 Upon expiration of the lease term, if the lessee continues to use the leased property without objection by the lessor, the original leasing contract remains effective, provided that it becomes an indeterminate-term lease.

租赁期限届满,房屋承租人享有以同等条件优先承租的权利。

Upon the expiration of the lease term, the lessee of a property shall have a preference in a lease on equal terms.

第十五章 融资租赁合同

Chapter XV Financial Leasing Contracts

  第七百三十五条 融资租赁合同是出租人根据承租人对出卖人、租赁物的选择,向出卖人购买租赁物,提供给承租人使用,承租人支付租金的合同。

Article 735 A financial leasing contract is a contract whereby the lessor, upon purchase of the lessee-selected leased property from a lessee-selected seller, provides the leased property to the lessee for its use, and the lessee pays the rent.

  第七百三十六条 融资租赁合同的内容一般包括租赁物的名称、数量、规格、技术性能、检验方法,租赁期限,租金构成及其支付期限和方式、币种,租赁期限届满租赁物的归属等条款。

Article 736 The contents of a financial leasing contract generally include terms such as the name, quantity, specifications, technical performance, and method of inspection of the leased property, the lease term, the rental components and the time, method and currency of payment, the attribution of the leased property at the end of the lease term, etc.

融资租赁合同应当采用书面形式。

A financial leasing contract shall be in written form.

  第七百三十七条 当事人以虚构租赁物方式订立的融资租赁合同无效。

Article 737 A financial leasing contract concluded by the parties by fabricating the leased property shall be void.

  第七百三十八条 依照法律、行政法规的规定,对于租赁物的经营使用应当取得行政许可的,出租人未取得行政许可不影响融资租赁合同的效力。

Article 738 Where any law or administrative regulation requires a lessee to obtain administrative license for the operation and use of the leased property, the failure of the lessor to obtain administrative license does not affect the validity of the financial leasing contract.

  第七百三十九条 出租人根据承租人对出卖人、租赁物的选择订立的买卖合同,出卖人应当按照约定向承租人交付标的物,承租人享有与受领标的物有关的买受人的权利。

Article 739 Under the sales contract concluded by the lessor according to the lessee's selection of the seller and the leased property, the seller shall deliver the subject matter to the lessee in accordance with the contract, and the lessee enjoys the rights of the buyer in respect of taking delivery of the subject matter.

  第七百四十条 出卖人违反向承租人交付标的物的义务,有下列情形之一的,承租人可以拒绝受领出卖人向其交付的标的物:

Article 740 Where a seller in breach of the obligation to deliver the subject matter to the lessee has any of the following circumstances, the lessee may refuse to accept the subject matter delivered to it by the seller:

(一)标的物严重不符合约定;

(1) The subject matter seriously does not conform to the agreement.

(二)未按照约定交付标的物,经承租人或者出租人催告后在合理期限内仍未交付。

(2) The subject matter fails to be delivered as agreed, and delivery fails to be made within a reasonable time limit after a demand from the lessee or the lessor.

承租人拒绝受领标的物的,应当及时通知出租人。

If the lessee refuses to accept the subject matter, it shall, in a timely manner, notify the lessor.

  第七百四十一条 出租人、出卖人、承租人可以约定,出卖人不履行买卖合同义务的,由承租人行使索赔的权利。承租人行使索赔权利的,出租人应当协助。

Article 741 The lessor, the seller and the lessee may agree that any claim arising from the seller's failure in the performance of its obligations under the sales contract will be made by the lessee. Where the lessee makes such a claim, the lessor shall provide assistance.

  第七百四十二条 承租人对出卖人行使索赔权利,不影响其履行支付租金的义务。但是,承租人依赖出租人的技能确定租赁物或者出租人干预选择租赁物的,承租人可以请求减免相应租金。

Article 742 The exercise of the right to claims against a seller by the lessee does not affect the performance of its obligation to pay rent. However, if the lessee relies on the skills of the lessor to determine leased property, or the lessor intervenes in selecting leased property, the lessee may request a reduction or remission of the corresponding rent.

  第七百四十三条 出租人有下列情形之一,致使承租人对出卖人行使索赔权利失败的,承租人有权请求出租人承担相应的责任:

Article 743 Where a lessor has any of the following circumstances, frustrating the lessee's exercise of the right to claims against the seller, the lessee shall have the right to request the lessor to assume corresponding liability:

(一)明知租赁物有质量瑕疵而不告知承租人;

(1) Knowing that the leased property is defective in quality and failing to notify the lessee.

(二)承租人行使索赔权利时,未及时提供必要协助。

(2) Failing to provide necessary assistance in a timely manner when the lessee exercises the right to claims.

出租人怠于行使只能由其对出卖人行使的索赔权利,造成承租人损失的,承租人有权请求出租人承担赔偿责任。

If the lessor is remiss in exercising the right to claims that may be exercised only by the lessor against the seller, causing loss to the lessee, the lessee shall have the right to request the lessor to be liable for compensation.

  第七百四十四条 出租人根据承租人对出卖人、租赁物的选择订立的买卖合同,未经承租人同意,出租人不得变更与承租人有关的合同内容。

Article 744 Without the consent of the lessee, the lessor may not modify any lessee-related term in the sales contract concluded by it according to the lessee's selection of the seller and the leased property.

  第七百四十五条 出租人对租赁物享有的所有权,未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。

Article 745 A lessor's ownership of leased property shall not be effective against a good faith third party without registration.

  第七百四十六条 融资租赁合同的租金,除当事人另有约定外,应当根据购买租赁物的大部分或者全部成本以及出租人的合理利润确定。

Article 746 Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the rent under a financial leasing contract shall be determined based on the major portion of or full costs of purchasing the leased property and the lessor's reasonable profit.

  第七百四十七条 租赁物不符合约定或者不符合使用目的的,出租人不承担责任。但是,承租人依赖出租人的技能确定租赁物或者出租人干预选择租赁物的除外。

Article 747 Where the leased property does not comply with the contract or is not fit for the intended purpose, the lessor is not liable, except where the lessee relies on the skills of the lessor in selecting the leased property or the lessor interferes with the selection thereof.

  第七百四十八条 出租人应当保证承租人对租赁物的占有和使用。

Article 748 The lessor shall give warranty in respect of the lessee's possession and use of the leased property.

出租人有下列情形之一的,承租人有权请求其赔偿损失:

If a lessor has any of the following circumstances, the lessee shall have the right to request the lessor to make compensation for its loss:

(一)无正当理由收回租赁物;

(1) Recovering the leased property without justification.

(二)无正当理由妨碍、干扰承租人对租赁物的占有和使用;

(2) Obstructing or interfering with the lessee's possession and use of the leased property without justification.

(三)因出租人的原因致使第三人对租赁物主张权利;

(3) A third party claims rights to the leased property because of the lessor.

(四)不当影响承租人对租赁物占有和使用的其他情形。

(4) Otherwise improperly affecting the lessee's possession and use of the leased property.

  第七百四十九条 承租人占有租赁物期间,租赁物造成第三人人身损害或者财产损失的,出租人不承担责任。

Article 749 If in the possession of the lessee, the leased property causes personal injury or property damage to a third party, the lessor is not liable.

  第七百五十条 承租人应当妥善保管、使用租赁物。

Article 750 The lessee shall keep and use the leased property with due care.

承租人应当履行占有租赁物期间的维修义务。

While in possession of the leased property, the lessee shall perform the obligations of maintenance and repair thereof.

  第七百五十一条 承租人占有租赁物期间,租赁物毁损、灭失的,出租人有权请求承租人继续支付租金,但是法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 751 Where leased property is damaged or lost in the possession of the lessee, the lessor shall have the right to request the lessee to continue paying the rent, except as otherwise provided by the law or agreed by the parties.

  第七百五十二条 承租人应当按照约定支付租金。承租人经催告后在合理期限内仍不支付租金的,出租人可以请求支付全部租金;也可以解除合同,收回租赁物。

Article 752 The lessee shall pay the rent in accordance with the contract. Where the lessee fails to pay the rent within a reasonable time limit after receiving the demand for payment from the lessor, the lessor may require payment of the full rent; or it may rescind the contract and take back the leased property.

  第七百五十三条 承租人未经出租人同意,将租赁物转让、抵押、质押、投资入股或者以其他方式处分的,出租人可以解除融资租赁合同。

Article 753 Where a lessee transfers, mortgages, pledges, invests for capital stock, or otherwise disposes of the leased property without the consent of the lessor, the lessor may rescind the financial leasing contract.

  第七百五十四条 有下列情形之一的,出租人或者承租人可以解除融资租赁合同:

Article 754 Under any of the following circumstances, a lessor or lessee may rescind the financial leasing contract:

(一)出租人与出卖人订立的买卖合同解除、被确认无效或者被撤销,且未能重新订立买卖合同;

(1) The sales contract entered into between the lessor and the seller is rescinded, nullified, or revoked, and a new sales contract fails to be concluded.

(二)租赁物因不可归责于当事人的原因毁损、灭失,且不能修复或者确定替代物;

(2) The leased property is damaged or lost for reasons not attributable to the parties, and is beyond repair or irreplaceable.

(三)因出卖人的原因致使融资租赁合同的目的不能实现。

(3) The purpose of the financial leasing contract is defeated because of the seller.

  第七百五十五条 融资租赁合同因买卖合同解除、被确认无效或者被撤销而解除,出卖人、租赁物系由承租人选择的,出租人有权请求承租人赔偿相应损失;但是,因出租人原因致使买卖合同解除、被确认无效或者被撤销的除外。

Article 755 Where a financial leasing contract is rescinded because the sales contract is rescinded, nullified, or revoked, if the seller and the leased property are selected by the lessee, the lessor shall have the right to request the lessee to make compensation for the corresponding loss, unless the sales contract is rescinded, nullified, or revoked because of the lessor.

出租人的损失已经在买卖合同解除、被确认无效或者被撤销时获得赔偿的,承租人不再承担相应的赔偿责任。

If the lessor is compensated for its loss when the sales contract is rescinded, nullified, or revoked, the lessee shall cease to bear the corresponding liability for compensation.

  第七百五十六条 融资租赁合同因租赁物交付承租人后意外毁损、灭失等不可归责于当事人的原因解除的,出租人可以请求承租人按照租赁物折旧情况给予补偿。

Article 756 Where a financial leasing contract is rescinded for the accidental damage to or loss of the leased property or other reasons not attributable to the parties after the leased property has been delivered to the lessee, the lessor may request the lessee to make compensation according to the depreciation of the leased property.

  第七百五十七条 出租人和承租人可以约定租赁期限届满租赁物的归属;对租赁物的归属没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,租赁物的所有权归出租人。

Article 757 The lessor and the lessee may agree on the ownership of the leased property at the expiry of the lease term. Where ownership of the leased property is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 510 of this Code, the ownership of the leased property shall belong to the lessor.

  第七百五十八条 当事人约定租赁期限届满租赁物归承租人所有,承租人已经支付大部分租金,但是无力支付剩余租金,出租人因此解除合同收回租赁物,收回的租赁物的价值超过承租人欠付的租金以及其他费用的,承租人可以请求相应返还。

Article 758 Where the parties agree that the leased property shall belong to the lessee at the expiry of the lease term, the lessee has paid the majority of the rent but is unable to pay the remaining rent, and the lessor rescinds the contract for this reason and recovers the leased property, if the value of the leased property recovered exceeds the rent and other expenses which the lessee owes to the lessor, the lessee may request corresponding return from the lessor.

当事人约定租赁期限届满租赁物归出租人所有,因租赁物毁损、灭失或者附合、混合于他物致使承租人不能返还的,出租人有权请求承租人给予合理补偿。

When the parties agree that the leased property belongs to the lessor at the expiry of the lease term, if the lessee is unable to return the leased property because the leased property is damaged, lost, attached to, or incorporated into another property, the lessor shall have the right to request the lessee to make reasonable compensation.

  第七百五十九条 当事人约定租赁期限届满,承租人仅需向出租人支付象征性价款的,视为约定的租金义务履行完毕后租赁物的所有权归承租人。

Article 759 Where the parties agree that the lessee is required only to pay a nominal price to the lessor at the expiry of the lease term, the ownership of the leased property shall be treated as passing to the lessee after the agreed obligation to pay rent has been performed.

  第七百六十条 融资租赁合同无效,当事人就该情形下租赁物的归属有约定的,按照其约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,租赁物应当返还出租人。但是,因承租人原因致使合同无效,出租人不请求返还或者返还后会显著降低租赁物效用的,租赁物的所有权归承租人,由承租人给予出租人合理补偿。

Article 760 When a financial leasing contract is void, if the parties agree on the ownership of the leased property under the circumstances, the agreement shall prevail; or absent such agreement, or if the agreement is not clear, the leased property shall be returned to the lessor. However, if the contract becomes void because of the lessee, and the lessor fails to request return, or the return is to significantly reduce the effectiveness of the leased property, the ownership of the leased property shall pass to the lessee, and the lessee shall give the lessor reasonable compensation.

第十六章 保理合同

Chapter XVI Factoring Contracts

  第七百六十一条 保理合同是应收账款债权人将现有的或者将有的应收账款转让给保理人,保理人提供资金融通、应收账款管理或者催收、应收账款债务人付款担保等服务的合同。

Article 761 A factoring contract is a contract by which an accounts receivable creditor assigns existing or future accounts receivable to a factor, who provides financial facilities, management or collection of accounts receivable, assurance of payment from accounts receivable debtors, and other services.

  第七百六十二条 保理合同的内容一般包括业务类型、服务范围、服务期限、基础交易合同情况、应收账款信息、保理融资款或者服务报酬及其支付方式等条款。

Article 762 The contents of a factoring contract generally include business type, service scope, service term, information on underlying transaction contracts, information on accounts receivable, proceeds of factoring financing or service remuneration, and payment method.

保理合同应当采用书面形式。

A factoring contract shall be in written form.

  第七百六十三条 应收账款债权人与债务人虚构应收账款作为转让标的,与保理人订立保理合同的,应收账款债务人不得以应收账款不存在为由对抗保理人,但是保理人明知虚构的除外。

Article 763 Where an accounts receivable creditor and debtor fabricate accounts receivable as the subject matter of assignment and enter into a factoring contract with a factor, the accounts receivable debtor shall not set up the nonexistence of accounts receivable against the factor, unless the factor knows the fabrication.

  第七百六十四条 保理人向应收账款债务人发出应收账款转让通知的,应当表明保理人身份并附有必要凭证。

Article 764 A factor shall state its identity as a factor and attach necessary documents when issuing a notice of assignment of accounts receivable to the accounts receivable debtor.

  第七百六十五条 应收账款债务人接到应收账款转让通知后,应收账款债权人与债务人无正当理由协商变更或者终止基础交易合同,对保理人产生不利影响的,对保理人不发生效力。

Article 765 Where after an accounts receivable debtor receives a notice of assignment of accounts receivable, the accounts receivable creditor and debtor negotiate the modification or termination of the underlying transaction contract without justification, which adversely affects the factor, the modification or termination shall be without effect against the factor.

  第七百六十六条 当事人约定有追索权保理的,保理人可以向应收账款债权人主张返还保理融资款本息或者回购应收账款债权,也可以向应收账款债务人主张应收账款债权。保理人向应收账款债务人主张应收账款债权,在扣除保理融资款本息和相关费用后有剩余的,剩余部分应当返还给应收账款债权人。

Article 766 Where the parties agree on recourse factoring, the factor may claim the return of the principal and interest of factoring financing or buyback of the accounts receivable against the accounts receivable creditor, or claim the accounts receivable against the accounts receivable debtor. In the latter case, the remainder, if any, after the deduction of the principal and interest of factoring financing and related expenses shall be returned to the accounts receivable creditor.

  第七百六十七条 当事人约定无追索权保理的,保理人应当向应收账款债务人主张应收账款债权,保理人取得超过保理融资款本息和相关费用的部分,无需向应收账款债权人返还。

Article 767 Where the parties agree on non-recourse factoring, the factor shall claim accounts receivable against the accounts receivable debtor and is not required to return to the accounts receivable creditor any excess acquired by the factor over the principal and interest of factoring financing and related expenses.

  第七百六十八条 应收账款债权人就同一应收账款订立多个保理合同,致使多个保理人主张权利的,已经登记的先于未登记的取得应收账款;均已经登记的,按照登记时间的先后顺序取得应收账款;均未登记的,由最先到达应收账款债务人的转让通知中载明的保理人取得应收账款;既未登记也未通知的,按照保理融资款或者服务报酬的比例取得应收账款。

Article 768 Where an accounts receivable creditor enters into multiple factoring contracts for the same accounts receivable, causing multiple factors to assert their rights, the factor that has made registration shall acquire the accounts receivable in preference to the factor that has not made registration; if each factor has made registration, the accounts receivable shall be acquired in the order of the time of registration; if none has made registration, the factor stated in the notice of assignment that first reaches the accounts receivable debtor shall acquire the accounts receivable; and absent registration and notice, the accounts receivable shall be acquired in proportion to the proceeds of factoring financing or service remuneration.

  第七百六十九条 本章没有规定的,适用本编第六章债权转让的有关规定。

Article 769 Where this Chapter is silent, the provisions on assignment of claims in Chapter VI of this Book shall apply.

第十七章 承揽合同

Chapter XVII Contracts for Work

  第七百七十条 承揽合同是承揽人按照定作人的要求完成工作,交付工作成果,定作人支付报酬的合同。

Article 770 A contract for work is a contract whereby the contractor shall, in light of the requirements of the ordering party, complete certain work and deliver the results therefrom, and the ordering party pays remuneration.

承揽包括加工、定作、修理、复制、测试、检验等工作。

Work includes processing, ordering, repairing, duplicating, testing, inspecting, etc.

  第七百七十一条 承揽合同的内容一般包括承揽的标的、数量、质量、报酬,承揽方式,材料的提供,履行期限,验收标准和方法等条款。

Article 771 The contents of a contract for work shall generally contain such clauses as the subject matter, quantity, quality, remuneration, method of the work, supply of materials, term of performance, standards and method of acceptance inspection.

  第七百七十二条 承揽人应当以自己的设备、技术和劳力,完成主要工作,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 772 The contractor shall use its own equipment, skills and labor to complete the main part of the work, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

承揽人将其承揽的主要工作交由第三人完成的,应当就该第三人完成的工作成果向定作人负责;未经定作人同意的,定作人也可以解除合同。

Where the contractor delegates the main contracted work to a third party for completion, the contractor shall be responsible to the ordering party in respect of the work results completed by the third party; however, if the assignment is not approved by the ordering party, the ordering party may rescind the contract.

  第七百七十三条 承揽人可以将其承揽的辅助工作交由第三人完成。承揽人将其承揽的辅助工作交由第三人完成的,应当就该第三人完成的工作成果向定作人负责。

Article 773 The contractor may delegate some ancillary work contracted to a third party for completion. Where the contractor delegates some ancillary work to a third party for completion, the contractor hall be responsible to the ordering party for the work result completed by a third party.

  第七百七十四条 承揽人提供材料的,应当按照约定选用材料,并接受定作人检验。

Article 774 Where the contractor is to supply the materials, the contractor shall select the materials in accordance with the contract and shall make such materials available for inspection by the ordering party.

  第七百七十五条 定作人提供材料的,应当按照约定提供材料。承揽人对定作人提供的材料应当及时检验,发现不符合约定时,应当及时通知定作人更换、补齐或者采取其他补救措施。

Article 775 Where the ordering party is to supply the materials, it shall supply the materials in accordance with the contract. The contractor shall, in a timely manner, inspect the materials supplied by the ordering party, and if it discovers that they do not conform to the agreement in the contract, it shall, in a timely manner, notify the ordering party to replace them or supply what is lacking or take other remedial measures.

承揽人不得擅自更换定作人提供的材料,不得更换不需要修理的零部件。

The contractor may not replace the materials supplied by the ordering party without authorization, and may not replace any components which do not need to be repaired.

  第七百七十六条 承揽人发现定作人提供的图纸或者技术要求不合理的,应当及时通知定作人。因定作人怠于答复等原因造成承揽人损失的,应当赔偿损失。

Article 776 Where the contractor discovers that the drawings or technical requirements provided by the ordering party are unreasonable, it shall, in a timely manner, notify the ordering party. Where any losses are caused to the contractor due to the indolent reply of the ordering party and other reasons, the ordering party shall be liable for making compensation.

  第七百七十七条 定作人中途变更承揽工作的要求,造成承揽人损失的,应当赔偿损失。

Article 777 Where the ordering party changes its requirements for the contracted work while the work is under way, thereby causing losses to the contractor, the ordering party shall be liable for making compensation.

  第七百七十八条 承揽工作需要定作人协助的,定作人有协助的义务。定作人不履行协助义务致使承揽工作不能完成的,承揽人可以催告定作人在合理期限内履行义务,并可以顺延履行期限;定作人逾期不履行的,承揽人可以解除合同。

Article 778 Where the performance of the contracted work requires assistance of the ordering party, the ordering party shall have the obligation to provide assistance. Where the contracted work is unable to be completed due to the ordering party's failure in fulfilling its obligation of assistance, the contractor may urge the ordering party to perform its obligation within a reasonable time limit and may extend the term of its performance; where the ordering party fails to perform such obligation within the time limit, the contractor may rescind the contract.

  第七百七十九条 承揽人在工作期间,应当接受定作人必要的监督检验。定作人不得因监督检验妨碍承揽人的正常工作。

Article 779 In the period of working, the contractor shall accept the necessary supervision over and inspection of the work by the ordering party. The ordering party may not obstruct the normal work of the contractor with the supervision and inspection.

  第七百八十条 承揽人完成工作的,应当向定作人交付工作成果,并提交必要的技术资料和有关质量证明。定作人应当验收该工作成果。

Article 780 Upon the completion of the contracted work, the contractor shall deliver the work results to the ordering party and shall submit necessary technical materials and the relevant quality certificate. The ordering party shall conduct acceptance inspection of the work results.

  第七百八十一条 承揽人交付的工作成果不符合质量要求的,定作人可以合理选择请求承揽人承担修理、重作、减少报酬、赔偿损失等违约责任。

Article 781 Where the work results delivered by the contractor fail to meet the quality requirements, the ordering party may reasonably choose to claim liability of the contractor for breach of contract by repairing, remaking, reducing remuneration, or compensating for losses.

  第七百八十二条 定作人应当按照约定的期限支付报酬。对支付报酬的期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,定作人应当在承揽人交付工作成果时支付;工作成果部分交付的,定作人应当相应支付。

Article 782 The ordering party shall pay the remuneration at the agreed time limit. Where the time limit of payment is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 510 of this Code, the ordering party shall pay it at the time when the contractor delivers the work results; where the work results are partially delivered, the ordering party shall make payment accordingly.

  第七百八十三条 定作人未向承揽人支付报酬或者材料费等价款的,承揽人对完成的工作成果享有留置权或者有权拒绝交付,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 783 Where the ordering party fails to pay the remuneration or cost for the materials, etc. to the contractor, the contractor is entitled to lien upon the work results or refuse to make delivery, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

  第七百八十四条 承揽人应当妥善保管定作人提供的材料以及完成的工作成果,因保管不善造成毁损、灭失的,应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 784 The contractor shall keep the materials supplied by the ordering party and the completed work results with due care, and shall be liable for compensation in case of any damage or losses due to improper care.

  第七百八十五条 承揽人应当按照定作人的要求保守秘密,未经定作人许可,不得留存复制品或者技术资料。

Article 785 The contractor shall keep the relevant information confidential as required by the ordering party, and may not retain any replica or technical material without permission of the ordering party.

  第七百八十六条 共同承揽人对定作人承担连带责任,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 786 Joint contractors are jointly and severally liable to the ordering party, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

  第七百八十七条 定作人在承揽人完成工作前可以随时解除合同,造成承揽人损失的,应当赔偿损失。

Article 787 The ordering party may rescind the contract at any time before the contractor completes the work, but it shall bear the liability for making compensation for losses, if the contractor suffers losses therefrom.

第十八章 建设工程合同

Chapter XVIII Contracts for Construction Projects

  第七百八十八条 建设工程合同是承包人进行工程建设,发包人支付价款的合同。

Article 788 A contract for construction project is a contract whereby the contractor performs project construction and the employer pays the price.

建设工程合同包括工程勘察、设计、施工合同。

Contracts for construction projects include contracts for survey, design, and construction.

  第七百八十九条 建设工程合同应当采用书面形式。

Article 789 A contract for construction project shall be in written form.

  第七百九十条 建设工程的招标投标活动,应当依照有关法律的规定公开、公平、公正进行。

Article 790 Bidding for a construction project shall be conducted in an open, fair and impartial manner in accordance with the relevant laws.

  第七百九十一条 发包人可以与总承包人订立建设工程合同,也可以分别与勘察人、设计人、施工人订立勘察、设计、施工承包合同。发包人不得将应当由一个承包人完成的建设工程支解成若干部分发包给数个承包人。

Article 791 The employer may enter into a contract for construction project with a prime contractor, or enter into contracts for survey, design, and construction with the surveyor, designer, and constructor respectively. The employer may not divide a construction project which should be completed by one contractor into several parts and contract them out to several contractors.

总承包人或者勘察、设计、施工承包人经发包人同意,可以将自己承包的部分工作交由第三人完成。第三人就其完成的工作成果与总承包人或者勘察、设计、施工承包人向发包人承担连带责任。承包人不得将其承包的全部建设工程转包给第三人或者将其承包的全部建设工程支解以后以分包的名义分别转包给第三人。

Subject to consent by the employer, the prime contractor or the contractor for survey, design, or construction may delegate part of the contracted work to a third party. The third party and the prime contractor or the contractor for survey, design, or construction shall be jointly and severally liable to the employer in respect of the work product completed by such third party. The contractor may not assign in whole to any third party the contracted construction project, or divide the whole contracted construction project into several parts and separately assign each part to a third party under the guise of sub-contracting.

禁止承包人将工程分包给不具备相应资质条件的单位。禁止分包单位将其承包的工程再分包。建设工程主体结构的施工必须由承包人自行完成。

The contractor is prohibited from sub-contracting any part of the project to an entity not appropriately qualified. A sub-contractor is prohibited from further sub-contracting its contracted work. The main structure of the construction project must be constructed by the contractor itself.

  第七百九十二条 国家重大建设工程合同,应当按照国家规定的程序和国家批准的投资计划、可行性研究报告等文件订立。

Article 792 A contract for a major state construction project shall be concluded in accordance with the procedure prescribed by the state and in compliance with the state-approved documents such as the investment plan and feasibility studies report, etc.

  第七百九十三条 建设工程施工合同无效,但是建设工程经验收合格的,可以参照合同关于工程价款的约定折价补偿承包人。

Article 793 Where a contract for construction of a construction project is void, and the construction project passes the acceptance inspection, the contractor may be compensated by liquidation with reference to the stipulation about the project price in the contract.

建设工程施工合同无效,且建设工程经验收不合格的,按照以下情形处理:

If a contract for construction of a construction project is void, and the construction project fails the acceptance inspection, action shall be taken according to the following circumstances:

(一)修复后的建设工程经验收合格的,发包人可以请求承包人承担修复费用;

(1) If the construction project as repaired passes the acceptance inspection, the employer may request the contractor to bear the repair costs.

(二)修复后的建设工程经验收不合格的,承包人无权请求参照合同关于工程价款的约定折价补偿。

(2) If the construction project as repaired fails the acceptance inspection, the contractor has no right to request equivalent-value compensation with reference to the stipulation about the project price in the contract.

发包人对因建设工程不合格造成的损失有过错的,应当承担相应的责任。

If the employer is at fault for the loss caused by the nonconformity of the construction project, the employer shall be correspondingly liable.

  第七百九十四条 勘察、设计合同的内容一般包括提交有关基础资料和概预算等文件的期限、质量要求、费用以及其他协作条件等条款。

Article 794 A contract for survey or design generally includes terms such as the time limit for submission of the relevant basic information, budget estimate, and other documents, quality requirements, fees, and other conditions of cooperation, etc.

  第七百九十五条 施工合同的内容一般包括工程范围、建设工期、中间交工工程的开工和竣工时间、工程质量、工程造价、技术资料交付时间、材料和设备供应责任、拨款和结算、竣工验收、质量保修范围和质量保证期、相互协作等条款。

Article 795 A construction contract includes terms such as the scope of the project, the construction period, the time for commencement and completion of any work to be commissioned in the interim, the quality of the project, the cost of the project, the time for delivery of technical materials, the responsibilities for the supply of materials and equipment, the appropriation of funds and settlement of account, inspection upon completion of the project, the scope and period of quality warranty, and cooperation, etc.

  第七百九十六条 建设工程实行监理的,发包人应当与监理人采用书面形式订立委托监理合同。发包人与监理人的权利和义务以及法律责任,应当依照本编委托合同以及其他有关法律、行政法规的规定。

Article 796 Where the construction project is subject to supervision, the employer shall enter into a commission contract of project supervision with a project supervisor in writing. The rights, obligations and associated legal liability of the employer and supervisor shall be prescribed in accordance with the provisions of this Book concerning commission contracts and the provisions of other relevant laws and administrative regulations.

  第七百九十七条 发包人在不妨碍承包人正常作业的情况下,可以随时对作业进度、质量进行检查。

Article 797 Provided that the employer does not interfere with the normal operation of the contractor, it may inspect the progress and quality of the work at any time.

  第七百九十八条 隐蔽工程在隐蔽以前,承包人应当通知发包人检查。发包人没有及时检查的,承包人可以顺延工程日期,并有权请求赔偿停工、窝工等损失。

Article 798 In the case of concealed work, the contractor shall give the employer notice for inspection prior to concealment. Where the employer fails to conduct inspection in a timely manner, the contractor may extend the relevant project milestones, and is entitled to claim damages for work stoppage or work slowdown, etc.

  第七百九十九条 建设工程竣工后,发包人应当根据施工图纸及说明书、国家颁发的施工验收规范和质量检验标准及时进行验收。验收合格的,发包人应当按照约定支付价款,并接收该建设工程。

Article 799 Upon completion of the construction project, the employer shall conduct acceptance inspection according to the construction drawings and specifications, and in accordance with the rules of construction inspection and quality inspection standard prescribed by the state. Once the construction project has passed the acceptance inspection, the employer shall pay the prescribed price and accept the construction project.

建设工程竣工经验收合格后,方可交付使用;未经验收或者验收不合格的,不得交付使用。

The completed construction project may be put into use only after it has passed the acceptance inspection; if the construction project has not been inspected or has failed the inspection, it may not be put into use.

  第八百条 勘察、设计的质量不符合要求或者未按照期限提交勘察、设计文件拖延工期,造成发包人损失的,勘察人、设计人应当继续完善勘察、设计,减收或者免收勘察、设计费并赔偿损失。

Article 800 Where the employer sustains any loss from construction delay due to non-compliance of the survey or design or due to delayed delivery of the survey or design documents, the surveyor or the designer shall continue to improve the survey or design, reduce or forgo the survey fee or design fee, and pay damages.

  第八百零一条 因施工人的原因致使建设工程质量不符合约定的,发包人有权请求施工人在合理期限内无偿修理或者返工、改建。经过修理或者返工、改建后,造成逾期交付的,施工人应当承担违约责任。

Article 801 Where the construction project fails to meet the prescribed quality requirements due to any reason attributable to the constructor, the employer is entitled to require the constructor to repair, re-construct or make alteration gratuitously within a reasonable time. Where delivery of the project is delayed due to such repair, re-construction or alteration, the constructor shall be liable for breach of contract.

  第八百零二条 因承包人的原因致使建设工程在合理使用期限内造成人身损害和财产损失的,承包人应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 802 Where the construction project caused personal injury and property damage during its reasonable usage period due to any reason attributable to the contractor, the contractor shall be liable in damages.

  第八百零三条 发包人未按照约定的时间和要求提供原材料、设备、场地、资金、技术资料的,承包人可以顺延工程日期,并有权请求赔偿停工、窝工等损失。

Article 803 Where the employer fails to provide raw materials, equipment, site, funds, or technical information at the prescribed time and in accordance with the contractual requirements, the contractor may extend the relevant project milestones, and is entitled to claim damages for work stoppage or slowdown, etc.

  第八百零四条 因发包人的原因致使工程中途停建、缓建的,发包人应当采取措施弥补或者减少损失,赔偿承包人因此造成的停工、窝工、倒运、机械设备调迁、材料和构件积压等损失和实际费用。

Article 804 If an ongoing project is stopped or delayed due to any reason attributable to the employer, the employer shall take the appropriate measures to make up or mitigate the loss, and shall indemnify the contractor for its loss and out-of-pocket expenses arising from resulting work stoppage, slowdown, reshipment, re-dispatch of mechanical equipment, and excess inventory of materials and assemblies, etc.

  第八百零五条 因发包人变更计划,提供的资料不准确,或者未按照期限提供必需的勘察、设计工作条件而造成勘察、设计的返工、停工或者修改设计,发包人应当按照勘察人、设计人实际消耗的工作量增付费用。

Article 805 Where in the course of survey or design, any repeating work, work stoppage or change of design occurs due to the employer's change of plan, the incorrect information provided by it, or its failure to provide the working conditions necessary for the survey or design at the prescribed time, the employer shall pay additional fees in light of the actual amount of work done by the surveyor or designer.

  第八百零六条 承包人将建设工程转包、违法分包的,发包人可以解除合同。

Article 806 Where a contractor assigns the whole or illegally subcontracts any part of the construction project, the employer may rescind the contract.

发包人提供的主要建筑材料、建筑构配件和设备不符合强制性标准或者不履行协助义务,致使承包人无法施工,经催告后在合理期限内仍未履行相应义务的,承包人可以解除合同。

If a employer furnishes main building materials, building components, and equipment not conforming to mandatory standards, or fails to perform its obligation to assist, rendering the contractor unable to perform construction, and fails to perform the corresponding obligation within a reasonable time limit after demand, the contractor may rescind the contract.

合同解除后,已经完成的建设工程质量合格的,发包人应当按照约定支付相应的工程价款;已经完成的建设工程质量不合格的,参照本法第七百九十三条的规定处理。

After the contract is rescinded, if the completed construction project is conforming in quality, the employer shall pay the corresponding project price as agreed; and if the completed construction project is nonconforming in quality, the provisions of Article 793 of this Code shall apply mutatis mutandis.

  第八百零七条 发包人未按照约定支付价款的,承包人可以催告发包人在合理期限内支付价款。发包人逾期不支付的,除根据建设工程的性质不宜折价、拍卖外,承包人可以与发包人协议将该工程折价,也可以请求人民法院将该工程依法拍卖。建设工程的价款就该工程折价或者拍卖的价款优先受偿。

Article 807 If the employer failed to pay the price in accordance with the contract, the contractor may demand payment from the employer within a reasonable period. Where the employer fails to pay the price at the end of such period, the contractor may enter into an agreement with the employer to liquidate the project, and may also petition the people's court to auction the project in accordance with the law, unless such project is not fit for liquidation or auction in light of its nature. The construction project price shall be paid in priority out of proceeds from the liquidation or auction of the project.

  第八百零八条 本章没有规定的,适用承揽合同的有关规定。

Article 808 Where this Chapter is silent, the provision on contracts for work shall apply.

第十九章 运输合同

Chapter XIX Transportation Contracts

第一节 一般规定

Section 1 General Rules

  第八百零九条 运输合同是承运人将旅客或者货物从起运地点运输到约定地点,旅客、托运人或者收货人支付票款或者运输费用的合同。

Article 809 A transportation contract is a contract whereby the carrier carries passengers or cargoes from the starting place of carriage to the agreed destination, and the passenger, consignor or consignee pays for the ticket-fare or freight.

  第八百一十条 从事公共运输的承运人不得拒绝旅客、托运人通常、合理的运输要求。

Article 810 A carrier engaged in public transportation may not refuse the normal and reasonable carriage request of a passenger or consignor.

  第八百一十一条 承运人应当在约定期限或者合理期限内将旅客、货物安全运输到约定地点。

Article 811 The carrier shall safely carry the passengers or cargoes to the agreed destination within the agreed time or within a reasonable time.

  第八百一十二条 承运人应当按照约定的或者通常的运输路线将旅客、货物运输到约定地点。

Article 812 The carrier shall carry the passengers or cargoes to the agreed destination via the agreed route or the customary carriage route.

  第八百一十三条 旅客、托运人或者收货人应当支付票款或者运输费用。承运人未按照约定路线或者通常路线运输增加票款或者运输费用的,旅客、托运人或者收货人可以拒绝支付增加部分的票款或者运输费用。

Article 813 A passenger, a consignor or a consignee shall pay the ticket-fare or freight. Where the carrier fails to carry the passengers or the cargoes via the agreed or customary carriage route, thereby increasing the ticket-fare or freight, the passenger, consignor or consignee may refuse to pay any increased portion thereof.

第二节 客运合同

Section 2 Passenger Transportation Contracts

  第八百一十四条 客运合同自承运人向旅客出具客票时成立,但是当事人另有约定或者另有交易习惯的除外。

Article 814 A passenger transportation contract is established upon the carrier's issuance of the passenger ticket to the passenger, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties or there are other usage of trade.

  第八百一十五条 旅客应当按照有效客票记载的时间、班次和座位号乘坐。旅客无票乘坐、超程乘坐、越级乘坐或者持不符合减价条件的优惠客票乘坐的,应当补交票款,承运人可以按照规定加收票款;旅客不支付票款的,承运人可以拒绝运输。

Article 815 A passenger shall board according to the time, service, and seat number stated in his valid passenger ticket. If the passenger boards without a ticket, exceeds the distance paid for, takes a higher class or higher berth than booked, or boards with a concessional ticket lacking eligibility for concession, he or she shall make up the payment for an appropriate ticket, and the carrier may charge an additional payment in accordance with the relevant provisions. Where the passenger fails to pay the ticket-fare, the carrier may deny transportation.

实名制客运合同的旅客丢失客票的,可以请求承运人挂失补办,承运人不得再次收取票款和其他不合理费用。

If a passenger under a non-anonymous passenger transportation contract loses his ticket, he or she may request loss registration and a replacement from the carrier, and the carrier shall not further charge a fare or any other unreasonable fee.

  第八百一十六条 旅客因自己的原因不能按照客票记载的时间乘坐的,应当在约定的期限内办理退票或者变更手续;逾期办理的,承运人可以不退票款,并不再承担运输义务。

Article 816 Where the passenger is unable to board the means of transportation at the time stated on the passenger ticket due to any reason attributable to himself, he or she shall undergo the formalities for ticket cancellation and refund or for ticket modification within the agreed period. Where the passenger fails to do so within the period, the carrier may refuse to refund the ticket-fare, and no longer bear the obligation of carriage.

  第八百一十七条 旅客随身携带行李应当符合约定的限量和品类要求;超过限量或者违反品类要求携带行李的,应当办理托运手续。

Article 817 A passenger's carry-on luggage shall conform to the agreed quantity limit and category requirements; and in the case of non-conformity, luggage check-in procedures shall be performed.

  第八百一十八条 旅客不得随身携带或者在行李中夹带易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蚀性、有放射性以及可能危及运输工具上人身和财产安全的危险物品或者违禁物品。

Article 818 The passenger may not bring with him or pack in the luggage flammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, or radioactive, and dangerous articles that might endanger the life and property on board the means of transportation or contraband.

旅客违反前款规定的,承运人可以将危险物品或者违禁物品卸下、销毁或者送交有关部门。旅客坚持携带或者夹带危险物品或者违禁物品的,承运人应当拒绝运输。

Where the passenger violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the carrier may unload, destroy or turn over to the relevant authority the dangerous articles or contraband articles. Where the passenger insists on carrying in person or placing in his luggage the dangerous articles or contraband articles, the carrier shall deny transportation.

  第八百一十九条 承运人应当严格履行安全运输义务,及时告知旅客安全运输应当注意的事项。旅客对承运人为安全运输所作的合理安排应当积极协助和配合。

Article 819 A carrier shall strictly perform its obligations of safe transportation, and notify, in a timely manner, passengers of the matters that should be noted for safe transportation. A passenger shall actively assist and cooperate with the carrier in the reasonable arrangements made for safe transportation.

  第八百二十条 承运人应当按照有效客票记载的时间、班次和座位号运输旅客。承运人迟延运输或者有其他不能正常运输情形的,应当及时告知和提醒旅客,采取必要的安置措施,并根据旅客的要求安排改乘其他班次或者退票;由此造成旅客损失的,承运人应当承担赔偿责任,但是不可归责于承运人的除外。

Article 820 The carrier shall carry a passenger according to the time, service, and seat number stated on his valid passenger ticket. Where the carrier delays in carriage or is otherwise unable to normally perform carriage, it shall notify and caution the passenger, take necessary accommodating measures, and, upon request by the passenger, either arrange the passenger to use another service or refund the ticket-fare; and if the passenger sustains loss as a result, the carrier shall be liable for compensation, except through no fault of the carrier.

  第八百二十一条 承运人擅自降低服务标准的,应当根据旅客的请求退票或者减收票款;提高服务标准的,不得加收票款。

Article 821 Where the carrier unilaterally lowers the standards of service, it shall, upon request by the passenger, refund the ticket-fare or lower the price of the ticket; where the service standards are enhanced, no additional ticket-fare shall be charged.

  第八百二十二条 承运人在运输过程中,应当尽力救助患有急病、分娩、遇险的旅客。

Article 822 In the course of carriage, the carrier shall give its best efforts to assist the passenger who is seriously ill, or who is giving birth to a child or whose life is at risk.

  第八百二十三条 承运人应当对运输过程中旅客的伤亡承担赔偿责任;但是,伤亡是旅客自身健康原因造成的或者承运人证明伤亡是旅客故意、重大过失造成的除外。

Article 823 The carrier shall be liable for compensation in case of injury or death of the passenger in the course of carriage, except where such injury or death is attributable to the passenger's own health, or the carrier proves that such injury or death is caused by the passenger's intentional misconduct or gross negligence.

前款规定适用于按照规定免票、持优待票或者经承运人许可搭乘的无票旅客。

The provisions in the preceding paragraph apply to a passenger who is exempted from buying a ticket or holds a preferential ticket pursuant to the relevant provisions, or who is permitted by the carrier to be on board without a ticket.

  第八百二十四条 在运输过程中旅客随身携带物品毁损、灭失,承运人有过错的,应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 824 Where an article that the passenger takes with him on board is damaged or destroyed during the period of carriage, the carrier shall be liable for compensation if it has committed faults.

旅客托运的行李毁损、灭失的,适用货物运输的有关规定。

Where the passenger's check-in luggage is damaged or lost, the relevant provisions on the carriage of cargoes shall be applied.

第三节 货运合同

Section 3 Cargo Transportation Contracts

  第八百二十五条 托运人办理货物运输,应当向承运人准确表明收货人的姓名、名称或者凭指示的收货人,货物的名称、性质、重量、数量,收货地点等有关货物运输的必要情况。

Article 825 In undergoing the formalities for cargoes, the consignor shall precisely indicate to carrier the name of the consignee or the consignee by order, the name, nature weight, amount and the place for taking delivery of the cargoes, and other information necessary for cargo carriage.

因托运人申报不实或者遗漏重要情况,造成承运人损失的,托运人应当承担赔偿责任。

Where the carrier suffers from damage due to untrue declaration or omission of important information by the consignor, the consignor shall be liable for compensation.

  第八百二十六条 货物运输需要办理审批、检验等手续的,托运人应当将办理完有关手续的文件提交承运人。

Article 826 Where carriage of the cargo is subject to such procedures as examination and approval or inspection, the consignor shall submit to the carrier the documents of fulfillment of the relevant procedure.

  第八百二十七条 托运人应当按照约定的方式包装货物。对包装方式没有约定或者约定不明确的,适用本法第六百一十九条的规定。

Article 827 The consignor shall pack the cargo in the agreed manner. Where the packing manner is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, the provisions of Article 619 of this Code shall be applied.

托运人违反前款规定的,承运人可以拒绝运输。

Where the consignor violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the carrier may refuse to carry.

  第八百二十八条 托运人托运易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蚀性、有放射性等危险物品的,应当按照国家有关危险物品运输的规定对危险物品妥善包装,做出危险物品标志和标签,并将有关危险物品的名称、性质和防范措施的书面材料提交承运人。

Article 828 In consigning any dangerous articles which are inflammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, or radioactive, the consignor shall, in accordance with the provisions of the state on the carriage of dangerous articles, properly pack the dangerous articles and affix thereon signs and labels for dangerous articles, and shall submit the written papers relating to the number and measures of precaution to the carrier.

托运人违反前款规定的,承运人可以拒绝运输,也可以采取相应措施以避免损失的发生,因此产生的费用由托运人负担。

If the consignor violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the carrier may refuse to carry, and may also take corresponding measures to avoid losses, expenses thus caused shall be borne by the consignor.

  第八百二十九条 在承运人将货物交付收货人之前,托运人可以要求承运人中止运输、返还货物、变更到达地或者将货物交给其他收货人,但是应当赔偿承运人因此受到的损失。

Article 829 Prior to carrier's delivery of the cargoes to the consignee, the consignor may request the carrier to suspend the carriage, return the cargoes, change the destination or deliver the cargoes to another consignee, but it shall compensate the carrier for any losses thus caused.

  第八百三十条 货物运输到达后,承运人知道收货人的,应当及时通知收货人,收货人应当及时提货。收货人逾期提货的,应当向承运人支付保管费等费用。

Article 830 Upon arrival of the cargoes, if the carrier has the knowledge of the consignee, it shall, in a timely manner, notify the consignee and the consignee shall, in a timely manner, take delivery. Where the consignee takes delivery exceeding the time limit, it shall pay such expenses as storage of the goods, etc.

  第八百三十一条 收货人提货时应当按照约定的期限检验货物。对检验货物的期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,应当在合理期限内检验货物。收货人在约定的期限或者合理期限内对货物的数量、毁损等未提出异议的,视为承运人已经按照运输单证的记载交付的初步证据。

Article 831 Upon taking delivery of the cargoes, the consignee shall inspect the cargoes at the agreed time. Where the time for inspection is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 510 of this Code, the consignee shall inspect the cargo within a reasonable time limit. The consignee's failure to raise any objection on the quantity of, or any damage to, the cargoes within the agreed time limit or within a reasonable time limit is deemed prima facie evidence of delivery by the carrier in compliance with the description in the transportation documents.

  第八百三十二条 承运人对运输过程中货物的毁损、灭失承担赔偿责任。但是,承运人证明货物的毁损、灭失是因不可抗力、货物本身的自然性质或者合理损耗以及托运人、收货人的过错造成的,不承担赔偿责任。

Article 832 The carrier is liable for compensation in case of damage to or loss of the cargoes in the course of carriage, provided that it is not liable for compensation if it proves that such damage to or loss of the cargoes is caused by force majeure, the intrinsic characteristics of the cargoes, reasonable depletion, or the fault of the consignor or consignee.

  第八百三十三条 货物的毁损、灭失的赔偿额,当事人有约定的,按照其约定;没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,按照交付或者应当交付时货物到达地的市场价格计算。法律、行政法规对赔偿额的计算方法和赔偿限额另有规定的,依照其规定。

Article 833 Where the parties agree on the amount of damages in case of damage to or loss of the cargoes, the damages payable is the agreed amount; if the amount of damages is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 510 of this Code, it shall be calculated on the basis of the prevailing market price at the destination when the cargoes are or ought to be delivered. Where a law or administrative regulation provides otherwise for the measures for the calculation of damages and of the ceiling of the amount of damages, these provisions shall be applied.

  第八百三十四条 两个以上承运人以同一运输方式联运的,与托运人订立合同的承运人应当对全程运输承担责任;损失发生在某一运输区段的,与托运人订立合同的承运人和该区段的承运人承担连带责任。

Article 834 Where two or more carriers jointly carry the cargoes using the same means of transportation, the carrier contracting with the consignor shall be responsible for the whole course of carriage. Where the losses occurred at a particular segment, the carrier contracting with the consignor and the carrier for such segment are jointly and severally liable.

  第八百三十五条 货物在运输过程中因不可抗力灭失,未收取运费的,承运人不得请求支付运费;已经收取运费的,托运人可以请求返还。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。

Article 835 Where the cargoes are lost in the course of carriage due to force majeure, if the freight has not been collected, the carrier may not request the payment thereof; if the freight has been collected, the consignor may request the refund of the freight, except as otherwise provided by the law.

  第八百三十六条 托运人或者收货人不支付运费、保管费或者其他费用的,承运人对相应的运输货物享有留置权,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 836 Where the consignor or consignee fails to pay the freight, storage fees or other expenses, the carrier is entitled to lien on the relevant carried cargoes, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

  第八百三十七条 收货人不明或者收货人无正当理由拒绝受领货物的,承运人依法可以提存货物。

Article 837 Where the consignee is not clear or refuses to take delivery of the cargoes without justified reasons, the carrier may tender and deposit the cargo according to the law.

第四节 多式联运合同

Section 4 Multimodal Transport Contracts

  第八百三十八条 多式联运经营人负责履行或者组织履行多式联运合同,对全程运输享有承运人的权利,承担承运人的义务。

Article 838 A multimodal carriage operator is responsible for performing, or arranging for performance of, the multimodal transportation contract, and it enjoys the rights and assumes the obligations of a carrier throughout the course of carriage.

  第八百三十九条 多式联运经营人可以与参加多式联运的各区段承运人就多式联运合同的各区段运输约定相互之间的责任;但是,该约定不影响多式联运经营人对全程运输承担的义务。

Article 839 The multimodal carriage operator and the segment carriers may enter into agreements on their respective duties concerning each segment, provided that the obligations of the multimodal carriage operator with respect to the entire course of carriage are not affected by any such agreement.

  第八百四十条 多式联运经营人收到托运人交付的货物时,应当签发多式联运单据。按照托运人的要求,多式联运单据可以是可转让单据,也可以是不可转让单据。

Article 840 Upon receipt of the cargo delivered by the consignor, the multimodal carriage operator shall issue thereto a multimodal carriage document. The multimodal carriage document may either be assignable or non-assignable as required by the consignor.

  第八百四十一条 因托运人托运货物时的过错造成多式联运经营人损失的,即使托运人已经转让多式联运单据,托运人仍然应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 841 Where the multimodal carriage operator sustains any loss due to the fault of the consignor in the course of consigning the cargo, the consignor shall be liable for compensation notwithstanding its subsequent assignment of the multimodal carriage document.

  第八百四十二条 货物的毁损、灭失发生于多式联运的某一运输区段的,多式联运经营人的赔偿责任和责任限额,适用调整该区段运输方式的有关法律规定;货物毁损、灭失发生的运输区段不能确定的,依照本章规定承担赔偿责任。

Article 842 Where damage to or loss of the cargo occurred within a particular segment of the course of a multimodal carriage, the multimodal carriage operator's liability for damages and any limitation thereon are governed by the applicable transportation law of the jurisdiction which such segment is under. Where the segment in which the cargo is damaged or lost cannot be determined, the liability for compensation shall be borne in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter.

第二十章 技术合同

Chapter XX Technology Contracts

第一节 一般规定

Section 1 General Rules

  第八百四十三条 技术合同是当事人就技术开发、转让、许可、咨询或者服务订立的确立相互之间权利和义务的合同。

Article 843 A technology contract is a contract the parties conclude for establishing their rights and obligations in respect of the development, transfer, or licensing of technology, or in respect of technical consulting or service.

  第八百四十四条 订立技术合同,应当有利于知识产权的保护和科学技术的进步,促进科学技术成果的研发、转化、应用和推广。

Article 844 The conclusion of a technology contract shall be conducive to the protection of intellectual property rights and advancement of science and technology, and promote the research and development, conversion, application and dissemination of scientific and technological achievements.

  第八百四十五条 技术合同的内容一般包括项目的名称,标的的内容、范围和要求,履行的计划、地点和方式,技术信息和资料的保密,技术成果的归属和收益的分配办法,验收标准和方法,名词和术语的解释等条款。

Article 845 The contents of a technology contract shall generally include the name, content of the subject matter, scope, and requirements of the project; the plan, place, and method for performance; confidentiality of technical information and materials; ownership of the technology and methods for allocating benefits accrued therefrom; standards and method for acceptance inspection; definition of terms and phrases.

与履行合同有关的技术背景资料、可行性论证和技术评价报告、项目任务书和计划书、技术标准、技术规范、原始设计和工艺文件,以及其他技术文档,按照当事人的约定可以作为合同的组成部分。

The parties may agree to include the following materials relating to the performance of the contract as an integral part thereof: technical background information, feasibility studies and technical evaluation report, project task matrix and project plan, technical standard, technical specifications, original design and technique documents, as well as other technical documentation.

技术合同涉及专利的,应当注明发明创造的名称、专利申请人和专利权人、申请日期、申请号、专利号以及专利权的有效期限。

Where the technology contract involves any patent, it shall set forth the name of the invention-creation, the patent applicant and the patentee, the date of application, the application number, patent number and the term of the patent.

  第八百四十六条 技术合同价款、报酬或者使用费的支付方式由当事人约定,可以采取一次总算、一次总付或者一次总算、分期支付,也可以采取提成支付或者提成支付附加预付入门费的方式。

Article 846 The method for payment of the price, remuneration or licensing fee under a technology contract shall be agreed upon by the parties, who may agree upon lump-sum payment based on one-time calculation or installment payment based on one-time calculation, and may also agree upon royalty payment or royalty payment plus advance payment of initial fee.

约定提成支付的,可以按照产品价格、实施专利和使用技术秘密后新增的产值、利润或者产品销售额的一定比例提成,也可以按照约定的其他方式计算。提成支付的比例可以采取固定比例、逐年递增比例或者逐年递减比例。

Where a royalty payment method is agreed upon, the royalty may be calculated as a percentage of the product price, any increase in product value resulting from exploitation of the patent or use of the know-how, profit, or product sales, and may also be calculated by any other method agreed upon by the parties. The royalty rate may be fixed or subject to annual increase or decrease.

约定提成支付的,当事人可以约定查阅有关会计账目的办法。

Where a royalty payment is agreed, the parties may agree a method for inspection of the relevant accounting items.

  第八百四十七条 职务技术成果的使用权、转让权属于法人或者非法人组织的,法人或者非法人组织可以就该项职务技术成果订立技术合同。法人或者非法人组织订立技术合同转让职务技术成果时,职务技术成果的完成人享有以同等条件优先受让的权利。

Article 847 Where the right to use and the right to transfer job-related technology belong to a legal person or an unincorporated organization, the legal person or unincorporated organization may enter into a technology contract in respect of such job-related technology. Where the legal person or unincorporated organization is to enter into a technology contract for the transfer of the job-related technology, the individual who accomplished this technological achievement shall have the priority to be the transferee under the same conditions.

职务技术成果是执行法人或者非法人组织的工作任务,或者主要是利用法人或者非法人组织的物质技术条件所完成的技术成果。

A job-related technology is a technology developed in the course of completing a task assigned by a legal person or an unincorporated organization, or developed by primarily utilizing the material and technical resources thereof.

  第八百四十八条 非职务技术成果的使用权、转让权属于完成技术成果的个人,完成技术成果的个人可以就该项非职务技术成果订立技术合同。

Article 848 The right to use and the right to transfer non-job-related technology belong to the individual developer, who may enter into a technology contract in respect thereof.

  第八百四十九条 完成技术成果的个人享有在有关技术成果文件上写明自己是技术成果完成者的权利和取得荣誉证书、奖励的权利。

Article 849 The individual who has developed a technology is entitled to identify himself as the developer in the documentation related thereto, and to receive honor certificate and reward.

  第八百五十条 非法垄断技术或者侵害他人技术成果的技术合同无效。

Article 850 A technology contract which illegally monopolizes technology or infringes on the technology of a third party is void.

第二节 技术开发合同

Section 2 Technology Development Contracts

  第八百五十一条 技术开发合同是当事人之间就新技术、新产品、新工艺、新品种或者新材料及其系统的研究开发所订立的合同。

Article 851 A technology development contract is a contract concluded in respect of the development of a new technology, product, technique, variety, or material and the associated system.

技术开发合同包括委托开发合同和合作开发合同。

Technology development contracts include commissioned development contracts and cooperative development contracts.

技术开发合同应当采用书面形式。

A technology development contract shall be in written form.

当事人之间就具有实用价值的科技成果实施转化订立的合同,参照适用技术开发合同的有关规定。

The provisions on technology development contracts shall apply mutatis mutandis to a contract between parties on the conversion of a scientific and technological achievement of practical value.

  第八百五十二条 委托开发合同的委托人应当按照约定支付研究开发经费和报酬,提供技术资料,提出研究开发要求,完成协作事项,接受研究开发成果。

Article 852 The commissioning party under a commissioned development contract shall, in accordance with the contract, pay development funds and remuneration, supply technical materials, propose requirements for research and development, complete its tasks of cooperation, and accept the developed technology.

  第八百五十三条 委托开发合同的研究开发人应当按照约定制定和实施研究开发计划,合理使用研究开发经费,按期完成研究开发工作,交付研究开发成果,提供有关的技术资料和必要的技术指导,帮助委托人掌握研究开发成果。

Article 853 The developer under a commissioned development contract shall, in accordance with the contract, prepare and implement the development plan, use development funds in a reasonable manner, complete the development as scheduled, deliver the developed technology, provide the relevant technical materials and necessary technical guidance, and help the commissioning party master the technology developed.

  第八百五十四条 委托开发合同的当事人违反约定造成研究开发工作停滞、延误或者失败的,应当承担违约责任。

Article 854 Where a party to the commissioned development contract violates the agreement, resulting in the stoppage of, delay in, or failure of the research and development work, the party shall be liable for breach of contract.

  第八百五十五条 合作开发合同的当事人应当按照约定进行投资,包括以技术进行投资,分工参与研究开发工作,协作配合研究开发工作。

Article 855 Parties to a cooperative development contract shall, in accordance with the contract, make investment, including investment in the form of technology, participate in the development by performing their respective tasks, and cooperate with each other in the development.

  第八百五十六条 合作开发合同的当事人违反约定造成研究开发工作停滞、延误或者失败的,应当承担违约责任。

Article 856 Where a party to a cooperative development contract breaches the contract, thereby causing stoppage, delay or failure of the development, it shall be liable for the breach of contract.

  第八百五十七条 作为技术开发合同标的的技术已经由他人公开,致使技术开发合同的履行没有意义的,当事人可以解除合同。

Article 857 Where the technology which is the subject matter of a technology development contract is made public by a third party, thereby making the performance of the technology development contract meaningless, the parties may rescind the contract.

  第八百五十八条 技术开发合同履行过程中,因出现无法克服的技术困难,致使研究开发失败或者部分失败的,该风险由当事人约定;没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,风险由当事人合理分担。

Article 858 If, in the course of implementing a technology development contract, the development is failed in whole or in part due to any insurmountable technical difficulty, allocation of the responsibility for such risk shall be agreed upon by the parties. Where the allocation of responsibility for such risk is not agreed upon or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 510 of this Code, it shall be shared by the parties in a reasonable manner.

当事人一方发现前款规定的可能致使研究开发失败或者部分失败的情形时,应当及时通知另一方并采取适当措施减少损失;没有及时通知并采取适当措施,致使损失扩大的,应当就扩大的损失承担责任。

Where a party discovers any circumstance which may lead to the failure of the development in whole or in part as described in the preceding paragraph, it shall, in a timely manner, notify the other party and take the appropriate measures to mitigate loss; where the party fails to notify, in a timely manner, the other party and take the appropriate measures, thereby aggravating the losses, it shall be liable for the aggravation.

  第八百五十九条 委托开发完成的发明创造,除法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定外,申请专利的权利属于研究开发人。研究开发人取得专利权的,委托人可以依法实施该专利。

Article 859 Unless otherwise provided by the law or agreed upon by the parties, the right to apply for patent on the invention-creation resulting from a commissioned development belongs to the developer. Where the developer is granted a patent, the commissioning party may exploit such patent gratuitously.

研究开发人转让专利申请权的,委托人享有以同等条件优先受让的权利。

Where the developer is to assign the right to apply for patent on the Invention or innovation resulting from the commissioned development, the commissioning party shall have the right to priority in acquiring such right under the same conditions.

  第八百六十条 合作开发完成的发明创造,申请专利的权利属于合作开发的当事人共有;当事人一方转让其共有的专利申请权的,其他各方享有以同等条件优先受让的权利。但是,当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 860 Unless otherwise agreed upon by the parties, the right to apply for patent on the invention-creation resulting from a cooperative development belongs to the parties therein jointly; and where a party is to assign its joint patent application right, the other parties shall have the right to priority in acquiring such right under the same conditions.

合作开发的当事人一方声明放弃其共有的专利申请权的,除当事人另有约定外,可以由另一方单独申请或者由其他各方共同申请。申请人取得专利权的,放弃专利申请权的一方可以免费实施该专利。

Where a party in the cooperative development states a waiver of its joint patent application right, the other party may apply by itself, or the other parties may jointly apply, as the case may be, unless otherwise agreed upon by the parties. Where the applicant acquires patent, the party waiving its patent application right may exploit such patent gratuitously.

合作开发的当事人一方不同意申请专利的,另一方或者其他各方不得申请专利。

If a party in the cooperative development does not consent to the application for patent, the other party or parties may not apply for patent.

  第八百六十一条 委托开发或者合作开发完成的技术秘密成果的使用权、转让权以及收益的分配办法,由当事人约定;没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,在没有相同技术方案被授予专利权前,当事人均有使用和转让的权利。但是,委托开发的研究开发人不得在向委托人交付研究开发成果之前,将研究开发成果转让给第三人。

Article 861 The right to use and transfer the know-how resulting from a commissioned or cooperative development, and the method for allocation of income shall be agreed upon by the parties. Where such matters are not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can they be determined in accordance Article 510 of this Code, each party is entitled to use and transfer the technology, before a patent is granted on the same technical solution, provided that the developer in a commissioned development may not transfer the technology to a third party before it delivers the technology to the commissioning party.

第三节 技术转让合同和技术许可合同

Section 3 Technology Transfer Contracts and Technology License Contracts

  第八百六十二条 技术转让合同是合法拥有技术的权利人,将现有特定的专利、专利申请、技术秘密的相关权利让与他人所订立的合同。

Article 862 A technology transfer contract is a contract by which a right holder that legally owns technology assigns rights related to an existing specific patent, patent application, or know-how to another person.

技术许可合同是合法拥有技术的权利人,将现有特定的专利、技术秘密的相关权利许可他人实施、使用所订立的合同。

A technology licensing contract is a contract by which a right holder who legally owns technology licenses another person to exploit and use rights related to an existing specific patent and know-how.

技术转让合同和技术许可合同中关于提供实施技术的专用设备、原材料或者提供有关的技术咨询、技术服务的约定,属于合同的组成部分。

The stipulations in a technology transfer contract or technology licensing contract regarding the provision of special equipment and raw materials for the exploitation of the technology, or that of related technical consulting and technical services are an integral part of the contract.

  第八百六十三条 技术转让合同包括专利权转让、专利申请权转让、技术秘密转让等合同。

Article 863 Technology transfer contracts include contracts for the assignment of patent, assignment of patent application right, and transfer of know-how, among others.

技术许可合同包括专利实施许可、技术秘密使用许可等合同。

Technology licensing contracts include patent licensing, know-how licensing, and other contracts.

技术转让合同和技术许可合同应当采用书面形式。

Technology transfer contracts and technology licensing contracts shall be in written form.

  第八百六十四条 技术转让合同和技术许可合同可以约定实施专利或者使用技术秘密的范围,但是不得限制技术竞争和技术发展。

Article 864 A technology transfer contract or technology licensing contract may set forth the scope of exploitation of the patent or the use of the know-how by the transferor and the transferee, provided that it may not restrict technological competition and technological development.

  第八百六十五条 专利实施许可合同仅在该专利权的存续期限内有效。专利权有效期限届满或者专利权被宣告无效的,专利权人不得就该专利与他人订立专利实施许可合同。

Article 865 A patent licensing contract is valid only when the patent subsists. Where the term of the patent expires or the patent is invalidated, the patentee may not enter into a patent licensing contract with any other person in respect thereof.

  第八百六十六条 专利实施许可合同的许可人应当按照约定许可被许可人实施专利,交付实施专利有关的技术资料,提供必要的技术指导。

Article 866 The licensor under a patent licensing contract shall, in accordance with the contract, license the licensee to exploit the patent, deliver the technical materials related to the exploitation of the patent, and provide the necessary technical guidance.

  第八百六十七条 专利实施许可合同的被许可人应当按照约定实施专利,不得许可约定以外的第三人实施该专利,并按照约定支付使用费。

Article 867 The licensee under a patent licensing contract shall exploit the patent in accordance with the contract and may not license the patent to any third party except as provided for in the contract; and shall pay the licensing fee in accordance with the contract.

  第八百六十八条 技术秘密转让合同的让与人和技术秘密使用许可合同的许可人应当按照约定提供技术资料,进行技术指导,保证技术的实用性、可靠性,承担保密义务。

Article 868 A transferor under a contract for transfer of know-how or a licensor under a know-how licensing contract shall, in accordance with the contract, supply the technical materials, provide technical guidance, and warrant the practical applicability and reliability of the technology, and shall abide by its confidentiality obligations.

前款规定的保密义务,不限制许可人申请专利,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

For the purpose of the preceding paragraph, the confidentiality obligation does not restrict the licensor from applying for a patent, unless otherwise agreed by the parties.

  第八百六十九条 技术秘密转让合同的受让人和技术秘密使用许可合同的被许可人应当按照约定使用技术,支付转让费、使用费,承担保密义务。

Article 869 The transferee under a contract for transfer of know-how, or a licensee under a know-how licensing contract, shall, in accordance with the contract, use the technology, pay the proceeds of transfer, licensing fee and abide by its confidentiality obligations.

  第八百七十条 技术转让合同的让与人和技术许可合同的许可人应当保证自己是所提供的技术的合法拥有者,并保证所提供的技术完整、无误、有效,能够达到约定的目标。

Article 870 The transferor under a technology transfer contract or licensor under a technology licensing contract shall warrant that it is the lawful owner of the technology provided, and shall warrant that the technology provided is complete, free from error, effective, and capable of achieving the prescribed goals.

  第八百七十一条 技术转让合同的受让人和技术许可合同的被许可人应当按照约定的范围和期限,对让与人、许可人提供的技术中尚未公开的秘密部分,承担保密义务。

Article 871 The transferee under a technology transfer contract or licensee under a technology licensing contract shall, in conformity with the scope and the period as agreed upon in the contract, abide by its confidentiality obligations in respect of the non-public and secret portion of the technology provided by the transferor or licensor.

  第八百七十二条 许可人未按照约定许可技术的,应当返还部分或者全部使用费,并应当承担违约责任;实施专利或者使用技术秘密超越约定的范围的,违反约定擅自许可第三人实施该项专利或者使用该项技术秘密的,应当停止违约行为,承担违约责任;违反约定的保密义务的,应当承担违约责任。

Article 872 Where the licensor fails to license technology in accordance with the contract, it shall refund the licensing fee in part or in whole, and shall be liable for the breach of contract; where the licensor exploits the patent or uses the know-how beyond the agreed scope, or unilaterally allows the patent to be exploited or the know-how to be used by a third party in breach of the contract, it shall cease the breach and be liable for the breach of contract; where the licensor breaches any agreed confidentiality obligation, it shall be liable for the breach of contract.

让与人承担违约责任,参照适用前款规定。

If a transferor is liable for breach of contract, the provisions of the preceding paragraph shall apply mutatis mutandis.

  第八百七十三条 被许可人未按照约定支付使用费的,应当补交使用费并按照约定支付违约金;不补交使用费或者支付违约金的,应当停止实施专利或者使用技术秘密,交还技术资料,承担违约责任;实施专利或者使用技术秘密超越约定的范围的,未经许可人同意擅自许可第三人实施该专利或者使用该技术秘密的,应当停止违约行为,承担违约责任;违反约定的保密义务的,应当承担违约责任。

Article 873 Where the licensee fails to pay the agreed licensing fee, it shall pay the overdue licensing fee and pay breach of contract damages in accordance with the contract; where it fails to pay the overdue licensing fee and breach of contract damages, it shall cease exploitation of the patent or use of the know-how, return the technical materials, and be liable for the breach of contract; where the licensee exploits the patent or uses the know-how beyond the agreed scope, or allows the patent to be exploited or the know-how to be used by a third party without consent of the licensor in breach of the contract, it shall cease the breach and be liable for the breach of contract; where the licensee breaches any agreed confidentiality obligation, it shall be liable for the breach of contract.

受让人承担违约责任,参照适用前款规定。

If a transferee is liable for breach of contract, the provisions of the preceding paragraph shall apply mutatis mutandis.

  第八百七十四条 受让人或者被许可人按照约定实施专利、使用技术秘密侵害他人合法权益的,由让与人或者许可人承担责任,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 874 Where the exploitation of the patent or the use of the know-how by a transferee or licensee in accordance with the contract infringes on the lawful interests of any other person, the liability shall be borne by the transferor or licensee, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

  第八百七十五条 当事人可以按照互利的原则,在合同中约定实施专利、使用技术秘密后续改进的技术成果的分享办法;没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,一方后续改进的技术成果,其他各方无权分享。

Article 875 The parties may, on the basis of mutual benefit, provide in the contract for the method of sharing any subsequent improvement resulting from the exploitation of the patent or use of the know-how. If such method is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 510 of this Code, neither party is entitled to share any subsequent improvement made by the other party.

  第八百七十六条 集成电路布图设计专有权、植物新品种权、计算机软件著作权等其他知识产权的转让和许可,参照适用本节的有关规定。

Article 876 The relevant provisions of this Section shall apply mutatis mutandis to the assignment and licensing of other intellectual property rights such as exclusive rights of integrated circuit layout design, rights to new plant varieties, and copyright of computer software.

  第八百七十七条 法律、行政法规对技术进出口合同或者专利、专利申请合同另有规定的,依照其规定。

Article 877 Where the relevant laws or administrative regulations provide otherwise in respect of technology import or export contracts or in respect of patent contracts or contracts for patent application, such provisions shall prevail.

第四节 技术咨询合同和技术服务合同

Section 4 Technical Consulting Contracts and Technical Service Contracts

  第八百七十八条 技术咨询合同是当事人一方以技术知识为对方就特定技术项目提供可行性论证、技术预测、专题技术调查、分析评价报告等所订立的合同。

Article 878 A technical consulting contract is a contract by which a party with technical knowledge provides the other party with feasibility studies, technical forecast, specialized technical investigation, and analysis and evaluation report, among others, in respect of a particular technical project.

技术服务合同是当事人一方以技术知识为对方解决特定技术问题所订立的合同,不包括承揽合同和建设工程合同。

A technical service contract is a contract whereby one party solves a particular technical problem for the other party by utilizing its technical knowledge, other than a contract of work or contract for construction project.

  第八百七十九条 技术咨询合同的委托人应当按照约定阐明咨询的问题,提供技术背景材料及有关技术资料,接受受托人的工作成果,支付报酬。

Article 879 The client under a technical consulting contract shall, in accordance with the contract, describe the problem on which consultancy is sought, provide the technical background information as well as related technical materials, and accept the work product from, and pay the remuneration to, the consultant.

  第八百八十条 技术咨询合同的受托人应当按照约定的期限完成咨询报告或者解答问题,提出的咨询报告应当达到约定的要求。

Article 880 The consultant under a technical consulting contract shall complete the consulting report or answer the question within the agreed period, and the consulting report submitted shall comply with the requirements set forth in the contract.

  第八百八十一条 技术咨询合同的委托人未按照约定提供必要的资料,影响工作进度和质量,不接受或者逾期接受工作成果的,支付的报酬不得追回,未支付的报酬应当支付。

Article 881 Where the client under a technical consulting contract fails to provide the necessary materials in accordance with the contract, thereby impairing the progress and quality of the work, or fails to accept or delays in accepting the work result, it may not claim refund of the remuneration paid, and shall pay any unpaid remuneration.

技术咨询合同的受托人未按期提出咨询报告或者提出的咨询报告不符合约定的,应当承担减收或者免收报酬等违约责任。

Where the consultant under the technical consulting contract fails to provide the consulting report within the agreed period or the consulting report submitted does not comply with the contract, it shall be liable for the breach of contract by way of reducing or foregoing the remuneration, etc.

技术咨询合同的委托人按照受托人符合约定要求的咨询报告和意见作出决策所造成的损失,由委托人承担,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

The client under a technical consulting contract shall be liable for the loss resulting from any decision made by it based on the complying consulting report and opinion provided by the consultant, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

  第八百八十二条 技术服务合同的委托人应当按照约定提供工作条件,完成配合事项,接受工作成果并支付报酬。

Article 882 The client under a technical service contract shall, in accordance with the contract, provide the working conditions and complete its tasks of cooperation, and accept the work results and pay the remuneration.

  第八百八十三条 技术服务合同的受托人应当按照约定完成服务项目,解决技术问题,保证工作质量,并传授解决技术问题的知识。

Article 883 The service provider under a technical service contract shall, in accordance with the contract, complete the service project, solve the technical problem, warrant the quality of its work, and communicate the knowledge for solving the technical problem.

  第八百八十四条 技术服务合同的委托人不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定,影响工作进度和质量,不接受或者逾期接受工作成果的,支付的报酬不得追回,未支付的报酬应当支付。

Article 884 Where the client under a technical service contract fails to perform its contractual obligations, or the performance is not in conformity with the contract, thereby impairing the progress and quality of the work, or fails to accept or delays in accepting the work results, it may not claim refund of the remuneration paid, and shall pay any unpaid remuneration.

技术服务合同的受托人未按照约定完成服务工作的,应当承担免收报酬等违约责任。

Where the service provider under a technical service contract fails to provide services as agreed, it shall be liable for the breach of contract by way of forgoing the remuneration, etc.

  第八百八十五条 技术咨询合同、技术服务合同履行过程中,受托人利用委托人提供的技术资料和工作条件完成的新的技术成果,属于受托人。委托人利用受托人的工作成果完成的新的技术成果,属于委托人。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。

Article 885 In the course of performing a technical consulting contract or a technical service contract, any new technology developed by the consultant or service provider utilizing the technical materials and working conditions provided by the client belongs to the consultant or service provider. Any new technology developed by the client utilizing the work results provided by the consultant or service provider belongs to the client. If the parties agree otherwise, such agreement shall prevail.

  第八百八十六条 技术咨询合同和技术服务合同对受托人正常开展工作所需费用的负担没有约定或者约定不明确的,由受托人负担。

Article 886 Where a technical consulting contract or technical service contract is silent on, or is not clear in, the payment of the expenses necessary for the consultant or service provider to normally conduct work, the consultant or service provider shall pay the expenses.

  第八百八十七条 法律、行政法规对技术中介合同、技术培训合同另有规定的,依照其规定。

Article 887 Where a relevant law or administrative regulation provides otherwise in respect of technology intermediary service contracts or technical training contracts, such provisions shall prevail.

第二十一章 保管合同

Chapter XXI Deposit Contracts

  第八百八十八条 保管合同是保管人保管寄存人交付的保管物,并返还该物的合同。

Article 888 A deposit contract is a contract whereby the depositary keeps the deposited property delivered by the depositor and eventually restores it thereto.

寄存人到保管人处从事购物、就餐、住宿等活动,将物品存放在指定场所的,视为保管,但是当事人另有约定或者另有交易习惯的除外。

If a depositor engages in activities such as shopping, dining, and accommodation at the depositary and deposit its property in the designated place, deposit shall be treated as taking place, subject to the agreement between the parties or usage of trade.

  第八百八十九条 寄存人应当按照约定向保管人支付保管费。

Article 889 The depositor shall pay a deposit fee to the depositary as agreed.

当事人对保管费没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,视为无偿保管。

Where the deposit fee is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 510 of this Code, the deposit shall be treated as being gratuitous.

  第八百九十条 保管合同自保管物交付时成立,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 890 A deposit contract is formed upon delivery of the deposited property, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

  第八百九十一条 寄存人向保管人交付保管物的,保管人应当出具保管凭证,但是另有交易习惯的除外。

Article 891 Upon the depositor's delivery of the deposited property to the depositary, the depositary shall issue a deposit document thereto, subject to the usage of trade.

  第八百九十二条 保管人应当妥善保管保管物。

Article 892 The depositary shall keep the deposited property with due care.

当事人可以约定保管场所或者方法。除紧急情况或者为维护寄存人利益外,不得擅自改变保管场所或者方法。

The parties may agree the place and manner of deposit. The place and manner of deposit may not be changed without authorization, except in an emergency situation or for the purpose of protecting the depositor's interests.

  第八百九十三条 寄存人交付的保管物有瑕疵或者根据保管物的性质需要采取特殊保管措施的,寄存人应当将有关情况告知保管人。寄存人未告知,致使保管物受损失的,保管人不承担赔偿责任;保管人因此受损失的,除保管人知道或者应当知道且未采取补救措施外,寄存人应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 893 Where the deposited property delivered by the depositor is defective or requires special deposit measures in light of its nature, the depositor shall inform the depositary of the relevant situation. Where the depositor fails to do so, thereby causing damage to the deposited property, the depositary shall be exempt from liability for compensation; where the depositary sustains any loss as a result, the depositor shall be liable for compensation, except where the depositary knows or should have known the situation and fails to take remedial measures.

  第八百九十四条 保管人不得将保管物转交第三人保管,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 894 The depositary may not delegate deposit of the deposited property to a third party, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

保管人违反前款规定,将保管物转交第三人保管,造成保管物损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。

Where the depositary delegated deposit of the deposited property to a third party in violation of the provisions of the preceding paragraph, thereby causing damage to the deposited property, the depositary shall be liable for compensation.

  第八百九十五条 保管人不得使用或者许可第三人使用保管物,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 895 The depositary may neither use nor permit a third party to use the deposited property, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

  第八百九十六条 第三人对保管物主张权利的,除依法对保管物采取保全或者执行措施外,保管人应当履行向寄存人返还保管物的义务。

Article 896 Where a third party makes a claim on the deposited property, the depositary shall perform its obligation of restoring the deposit to the depositor, except where preservation or enforcement measures are taken against the deposited property in accordance with the law.

第三人对保管人提起诉讼或者对保管物申请扣押的,保管人应当及时通知寄存人。

Where a third party institutes an action against the depositary or applies for attachment of the deposited property, the depositary shall, in a timely manner, notify the depositor.

  第八百九十七条 保管期内,因保管人保管不善造成保管物毁损、灭失的,保管人应当承担赔偿责任。但是,无偿保管人证明自己没有故意或者重大过失的,不承担赔偿责任。

Article 897 If the deposited property is damaged or lost due to improper keeping by the depositary during the deposit period, the depositary shall be liable for compensation, but if a depositary by gratuitous title proves the absence of its intention or gross negligence, it shall be exempt from liability for compensation.

  第八百九十八条 寄存人寄存货币、有价证券或者其他贵重物品的,应当向保管人声明,由保管人验收或者封存;寄存人未声明的,该物品毁损、灭失后,保管人可以按照一般物品予以赔偿。

Article 898 Where the depositor deposits money, denominated securities, or any other valuable property, it shall make a declaration to the depositary on such property, which shall be inspected or sealed by the depositary. Where the depositor fails to make such declaration and the property is damaged, destroyed or lost afterwards, the depositary may make compensation as if it were ordinary property.

  第八百九十九条 寄存人可以随时领取保管物。

Article 899 The depositor may reclaim the deposited property at any time.

当事人对保管期限没有约定或者约定不明确的,保管人可以随时请求寄存人领取保管物;约定保管期限的,保管人无特别事由,不得请求寄存人提前领取保管物。

Where a deposit period is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, the depositary may request the depositor to reclaim the deposited property at any time; where a deposit period is agreed, without special reason, the depositary may not request the depositor to reclaim the deposited property before the expiry of the deposit period.

  第九百条 保管期限届满或者寄存人提前领取保管物的,保管人应当将原物及其孳息归还寄存人。

Article 900 At the expiry of the deposit period, or if the depositor reclaims the deposited property before the expiry of the deposit period, the depositary shall restore the original property together with any fruit thereof to the depositor.

  第九百零一条 保管人保管货币的,可以返还相同种类、数量的货币;保管其他可替代物的,可以按照约定返还相同种类、品质、数量的物品。

Article 901 Where the depositary keeps custody of money, it may restore money of the same type and quantity. Where the depositary keeps any other fungible property, it may restore any property of the same type, quality and quantity in accordance with the contract.

  第九百零二条 有偿的保管合同,寄存人应当按照约定的期限向保管人支付保管费。

Article 902 Under an onerous deposit contract, the depositor shall pay to the depositary the deposit fee at the agreed time.

当事人对支付期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,应当在领取保管物的同时支付。

Where the time of payment of the deposit fee is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 510 of this Code, the deposit fee shall be paid at the same time the deposit is retrieved.

  第九百零三条 寄存人未按照约定支付保管费或者其他费用的,保管人对保管物享有留置权,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 903 Where the depositor fails to pay the deposit fee or other expenses, the depositary is entitled to lien on the deposited property, unless as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

第二十二章 仓储合同

Chapter XXII Warehousing Contracts

  第九百零四条 仓储合同是保管人储存存货人交付的仓储物,存货人支付仓储费的合同。

Article 904 A warehousing contract is a contract whereby the depositary stores the warehoused property delivered by the depositor, and the depositor pays the warehousing fee.

  第九百零五条 仓储合同自保管人和存货人意思表示一致时成立。

Article 905 A warehousing contract is formed when the depositary and the depositor agree by declaration of will.

  第九百零六条 储存易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蚀性、有放射性等危险物品或者易变质物品的,存货人应当说明该物品的性质,提供有关资料。

Article 906 Where the depositor intends to store any dangerous article which is inflammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, or radioactive, etc., or any material susceptible to deterioration, it shall indicate the nature of the property and provide the relevant information.

存货人违反前款规定的,保管人可以拒收仓储物,也可以采取相应措施以避免损失的发生,因此产生的费用由存货人负担。

Where the depositor violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the depositary may reject the warehoused property and may also take the appropriate measures to avoid losses, the cost consequently incurred shall be borne by the depositor.

保管人储存易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蚀性、有放射性等危险物品的,应当具备相应的保管条件。

Where the depositary is to store any dangerous article that is inflammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, or radioactive, etc., it shall be equipped with the appropriate safekeeping conditions.

  第九百零七条 保管人应当按照约定对入库仓储物进行验收。保管人验收时发现入库仓储物与约定不符合的,应当及时通知存货人。保管人验收后,发生仓储物的品种、数量、质量不符合约定的,保管人应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 907 The depositary shall inspect the received warehoused property as agreed. Where in the course of such inspection, the depositary discovers that the warehoused property is not in conformity with the agreement, it shall, in a timely manner, notify the depositor. After acceptance inspection by the depositary, if it is discovered that the category, quantity or quality of the warehoused property is not in conformity with the agreement, the depositary shall be liable for compensation.

  第九百零八条 存货人交付仓储物的,保管人应当出具仓单、入库单等凭证。

Article 908 Upon the depositor's delivery of the warehouse property, the depositary shall issue a warehouse receipt, property received note, and other documents.

  第九百零九条 保管人应当在仓单上签名或者盖章。仓单包括下列事项:

Article 909 The depositary shall sign its name or seal the warehouse receipt. The warehouse receipt shall contain the following:

(一)存货人的姓名或者名称和住所;

(1) Name and domicile of the depositor.

(二)仓储物的品种、数量、质量、包装及其件数和标记;

(2) Category, quantity, quality, and package, number of pieces and marks of the warehoused property.

(三)仓储物的损耗标准;

(3) Standards of spoilage of the warehoused property.

(四)储存场所;

(4) Place of storage.

(五)储存期限;

(5) Warehousing period.

(六)仓储费;

(6) Warehousing fee.

(七)仓储物已经办理保险的,其保险金额、期间以及保险人的名称;

(7) If the warehoused property has been insured, the insured amount, term of insurance and the name of the insurer.

(八)填发人、填发地和填发日期。

(8) Name of the person issuing the warehouse receipt, the place and the date of issuance.

  第九百一十条 仓单是提取仓储物的凭证。存货人或者仓单持有人在仓单上背书并经保管人签名或者盖章的,可以转让提取仓储物的权利。

Article 910 The warehouse receipt is the voucher for taking delivery of the warehoused property. Where the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt has endorsed the warehouse receipt and the depositary has signed its name or sealed thereon, the right to take delivery of the warehoused property may be assigned.

  第九百一十一条 保管人根据存货人或者仓单持有人的要求,应当同意其检查仓储物或者提取样品。

Article 911 Upon request of the depositor or the holder of the warehouse receipt, the depositary shall allow the person to inspect the warehoused property or take samples therefrom.

  第九百一十二条 保管人发现入库仓储物有变质或者其他损坏的,应当及时通知存货人或者仓单持有人。

Article 912 Where the depositary discovers that the warehoused property is deteriorating or are otherwise damaged, it shall, in a timely manner, notify the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt.

  第九百一十三条 保管人发现入库仓储物有变质或者其他损坏,危及其他仓储物的安全和正常保管的,应当催告存货人或者仓单持有人作出必要的处置。因情况紧急,保管人可以作出必要的处置;但是,事后应当将该情况及时通知存货人或者仓单持有人。

Article 913 Where the depositary discovers that the warehoused property is deteriorating or are otherwise damaged, thereby endangering the safety and normal safekeeping of other warehoused property, it shall demand disposal of the warehoused property by the depositor or the holder of the warehouse receipt as necessary. In an emergency situation, the depositary may dispose of the warehoused property as necessary, but shall, in a timely manner, notify the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt of the situation.

  第九百一十四条 当事人对储存期限没有约定或者约定不明确的,存货人或者仓单持有人可以随时提取仓储物,保管人也可以随时请求存货人或者仓单持有人提取仓储物,但是应当给予必要的准备时间。

Article 914 Where the warehousing period is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt may take delivery of the warehoused property at any time, and the depositary may request the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt to take delivery of the warehoused property at any time, provided that the other party shall be given the time required for preparation.

  第九百一十五条 储存期限届满,存货人或者仓单持有人应当凭仓单、入库单等提取仓储物。存货人或者仓单持有人逾期提取的,应当加收仓储费;提前提取的,不减收仓储费。

Article 915 At the expiry of the warehousing period, the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt shall take delivery of the warehoused property by presenting the warehouse receipt and property received note, among others, to the depositary. Where the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt fails to take delivery of the warehoused property, additional warehousing fees hall be charged; where delivery of the warehoused property is taken before the expiry the warehousing period, the warehousing fee shall not be reduced.

  第九百一十六条 储存期限届满,存货人或者仓单持有人不提取仓储物的,保管人可以催告其在合理期限内提取;逾期不提取的,保管人可以提存仓储物。

Article 916 At the expiry of the warehousing period, if the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt fails to take delivery of the warehoused property, the depositary may demand delivery taken within a reasonable period, and if the delivery of the warehoused property is not taken at the expiry of such period, the depositary may tender and deposit the warehoused property.

  第九百一十七条 储存期内,因保管不善造成仓储物毁损、灭失的,保管人应当承担赔偿责任。因仓储物本身的自然性质、包装不符合约定或者超过有效储存期造成仓储物变质、损坏的,保管人不承担赔偿责任。

Article 917 Where the warehoused property is damaged or lost during the warehousing period due to improper keeping by the depositary, it shall be liable for compensation. If the warehoused property is deteriorated or damaged because the warehoused property does not conform to the agreement in terms of its natural nature and packing, or passes its expiration date for storage, the depositary shall be exempt from liability for compensation.

  第九百一十八条 本章没有规定的,适用保管合同的有关规定。

Article 918 Matters not provided for in this Chapter shall be governed by the relevant provision on deposit contracts.

第二十三章 委托合同

Chapter XXIII Contracts of Mandate

  第九百一十九条 委托合同是委托人和受托人约定,由受托人处理委托人事务的合同。

Article 919 A contract of mandate is a contract whereby the mandator and the mandatary agree that the mandatary handle the affairs of the mandator.

  第九百二十条 委托人可以特别委托受托人处理一项或者数项事务,也可以概括委托受托人处理一切事务。

Article 920 The mandator may specifically mandate the mandatary to handle one or more of its affairs, or generally mandate the mandatary to handle all of its affairs.

  第九百二十一条 委托人应当预付处理委托事务的费用。受托人为处理委托事务垫付的必要费用,委托人应当偿还该费用并支付利息。

Article 921 The mandator shall advance the expenses for handling the affairs under the mandate. For any expense necessary for handling the affairs under the mandate advanced by the mandatary, the mandator shall make reimbursement for the expense with interest.

  第九百二十二条 受托人应当按照委托人的指示处理委托事务。需要变更委托人指示的,应当经委托人同意;因情况紧急,难以和委托人取得联系的,受托人应当妥善处理委托事务,但是事后应当将该情况及时报告委托人。

Article 922 The mandatary shall handle the affairs under the mandate in accordance with the instruction of the mandator. Any required deviation from the mandator's instruction is subject to consent of the mandator; in an emergency where the mandatary has difficulty in contacting the mandator, the mandatary shall properly handle the affair under the mandate but shall, in a timely manner, report it to the mandator thereafter.

  第九百二十三条 受托人应当亲自处理委托事务。经委托人同意,受托人可以转委托。转委托经同意或者追认的,委托人可以就委托事务直接指示转委托的第三人,受托人仅就第三人的选任及其对第三人的指示承担责任。转委托未经同意或者追认的,受托人应当对转委托的第三人的行为承担责任;但是,在紧急情况下受托人为了维护委托人的利益需要转委托第三人的除外。

Article 923 The mandatary shall personally handle the affair under the mandate. Subject to consent by the mandator, the mandatary may delegate the mandate to a third party. If the delegation is approved or ratified, the mandator may issue instructions concerning the affair under the mandate directly to the delegatee, and the mandatary is only responsible for its selection of the delegatee or its own instruction thereto. Where the mandate is delegated without consent or ratification, the mandatary shall be liable for any act of the delegatee, except in an emergency where the mandatary needs to delegate the mandate to a third party in order to safeguard the interests of the mandator.

  第九百二十四条 受托人应当按照委托人的要求,报告委托事务的处理情况。委托合同终止时,受托人应当报告委托事务的结果。

Article 924 Upon request by the mandator, the mandatary shall report on the progress of the affair under the mandate. Upon termination of the contract of mandate, the mandatary shall render an account of the affair under the mandate.

  第九百二十五条 受托人以自己的名义,在委托人的授权范围内与第三人订立的合同,第三人在订立合同时知道受托人与委托人之间的代理关系的,该合同直接约束委托人和第三人;但是,有确切证据证明该合同只约束受托人和第三人的除外。

Article 925 Where the mandatary, acting within the scope of authority granted by the mandator, enter into a contract in its own name with a third party who is aware of the mandate relationship between the mandator and mandatary, the contract is directly binding upon the mandator and such third party, except where there is conclusive evidence that the contract is only binding upon the mandatary and such third party.

  第九百二十六条 受托人以自己的名义与第三人订立合同时,第三人不知道受托人与委托人之间的代理关系的,受托人因第三人的原因对委托人不履行义务,受托人应当向委托人披露第三人,委托人因此可以行使受托人对第三人的权利。但是,第三人与受托人订立合同时如果知道该委托人就不会订立合同的除外。

Article 926 Where the mandatary contracts in its own name with a third party who is not aware of the mandate relationship between the mandatary and the mandator, if the mandatary fails to perform its obligation toward the mandator due to any reason attributable to such third party, the mandatary shall disclose the third party to the mandator, allowing it to exercise the mandatary's rights against such third party, except where the third party would not have contracted with the mandatary if he or she knew the mandator at the time of contracting.

受托人因委托人的原因对第三人不履行义务,受托人应当向第三人披露委托人,第三人因此可以选择受托人或者委托人作为相对人主张其权利,但是第三人不得变更选定的相对人。

Where the mandatary fails to perform its obligation toward the third party because of the mandator, the mandatary shall disclose the mandator to the third party, allowing the third party to select in alternative either the mandator or the mandatary as the other contract party against whom rights are asserted, provided that the third party may not subsequently modify its selection of the opposite party.

委托人行使受托人对第三人的权利的,第三人可以向委托人主张其对受托人的抗辩。第三人选定委托人作为其相对人的,委托人可以向第三人主张其对受托人的抗辩以及受托人对第三人的抗辩。

Where the mandator exercises the rights of the mandatary against the third party, the third party may avail itself of any defense it has against the mandatary. Where the third party selects the mandator as the other party to the contract, the mandator may avail itself of any defense it has against the mandatary as well as any defense the mandatary has against the third party.

  第九百二十七条 受托人处理委托事务取得的财产,应当转交给委托人。

Article 927 Any property acquired by the mandatary in the course of handling the affair under the mandate shall be turned over to the mandator.

  第九百二十八条 受托人完成委托事务的,委托人应当按照约定向其支付报酬。

Article 928 Upon completion of the affair under the mandate by the mandatary, the mandator shall pay the remuneration thereto as agreed.

因不可归责于受托人的事由,委托合同解除或者委托事务不能完成的,委托人应当向受托人支付相应的报酬。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。

Where the contract of mandate is rescinded or the affair under the mandate is not capable of being completed due to any reason not attributable to the mandatary, the mandator shall pay to the mandatary an appropriate amount of remuneration. If the parties agree otherwise, such agreement shall prevail.

  第九百二十九条 有偿的委托合同,因受托人的过错造成委托人损失的,委托人可以请求赔偿损失。无偿的委托合同,因受托人的故意或者重大过失造成委托人损失的,委托人可以请求赔偿损失。

Article 929 Under an onerous contract of mandate, if the mandator sustains any loss through the fault of the mandatary, the mandator may claim damages. Under a gratuitous contract of mandate, if the mandator sustains any loss due to the mandatary's intention or gross negligence, the mandator may claim damages.

受托人超越权限造成委托人损失的,应当赔偿损失。

Where the mandatary acts beyond its power, thereby causing loss to the mandator, it shall pay compensation for the loss.

  第九百三十条 受托人处理委托事务时,因不可归责于自己的事由受到损失的,可以向委托人请求赔偿损失。

Article 930 In the course of handling the affair under the mandate, if the mandatary sustains any loss due to a reason not attributable to itself, the mandatary may request compensation for the loss from the mandator.

  第九百三十一条 委托人经受托人同意,可以在受托人之外委托第三人处理委托事务。因此造成受托人损失的,受托人可以向委托人请求赔偿损失。

Article 931 Subject to consent by the mandatary, the mandator may, in addition to mandating the mandatary, mandate a third party to handle the affair under the mandate. If such mandate results in loss to the mandatary, it may request compensation for the loss from the mandator.

  第九百三十二条 两个以上的受托人共同处理委托事务的,对委托人承担连带责任。

Article 932 Where two or more mandataries jointly handle the affair under the mandate, they are jointly and severally liable to the mandator.

  第九百三十三条 委托人或者受托人可以随时解除委托合同。因解除合同造成对方损失的,除不可归责于该当事人的事由外,无偿委托合同的解除方应当赔偿因解除时间不当造成的直接损失,有偿委托合同的解除方应当赔偿对方的直接损失和合同履行后可以获得的利益。

Article 933 Either the mandator or the mandatary may rescind the contract of mandate at any time. When the other party sustains any loss due to rescission of the contract, the rescinding party shall make compensation for the direct loss caused by the improper timing of rescission, as in the case of a gratuitous contract of mandate, or compensate the other party for the direct loss and the interests acquirable if the contract were performed, as in the case of an onerous contract of mandate, except for a cause not attributable to the rescinding party.

  第九百三十四条 委托人死亡、终止或者受托人死亡、丧失民事行为能力、终止的,委托合同终止;但是,当事人另有约定或者根据委托事务的性质不宜终止的除外。

Article 934 Where a mandator is deceased or terminated, or a mandatary is deceased, incapacitated, or terminated, the contract of mandate is terminated, except where the parties agree otherwise, or where the termination is inappropriate in light of the nature of the affair under the mandate.

  第九百三十五条 因委托人死亡或者被宣告破产、解散,致使委托合同终止将损害委托人利益的,在委托人的继承人、遗产管理人或者清算人承受委托事务之前,受托人应当继续处理委托事务。

Article 935 Where the mandator is deceased, or is declared bankrupt or dissolved, resulting in the termination of the contract of mandate which will harm the mandator's interests, the mandatary shall continue to handle the affair under the mandate before the successor, administrator of estate, or liquidator of the mandator takes over the affair under the mandate.

  第九百三十六条 因受托人死亡、丧失民事行为能力或者被宣告破产、解散,致使委托合同终止的,受托人的继承人、遗产管理人、法定代理人或者清算人应当及时通知委托人。因委托合同终止将损害委托人利益的,在委托人作出善后处理之前,受托人的继承人、遗产管理人、法定代理人或者清算人应当采取必要措施。

Article 936 Where a contract of mandate is terminated because the mandatary dies or is incapacitated, declared bankrupt, or dissolved, the successor, legal representative, or liquidator of the mandatary shall, in a timely manner, notify the mandator. Where the termination of a contract of mandate is to harm the mandator's interests, before the mandator makes any remedial measures, the successor, legal representative, or liquidator of the mandatary shall take necessary measures.

第二十四章 物业服务合同

Chapter XXIV Property Management Service Contracts

  第九百三十七条 物业服务合同是物业服务人在物业服务区域内,为业主提供建筑物及其附属设施的维修养护、环境卫生和相关秩序的管理维护等物业服务,业主支付物业费的合同。

Article 937 A property management service contract is a contract by which a property management service provider provides an owner with property management services such as maintenance of buildings and auxiliary facilities, environmental cleaning, and management and maintenance of related order in the property management service area, and the owner pays a management fee.

物业服务人包括物业服务企业和其他管理人。

Property management service providers include property management enterprises and other managers.

  第九百三十八条 物业服务合同的内容一般包括服务事项、服务质量、服务费用的标准和收取办法、维修资金的使用、服务用房的管理和使用、服务期限、服务交接等条款。

Article 938 The contents of a property management service contract generally include services, service quality, service fee rates and collection methods, use of maintenance funds, management and use of service premises, service term, and service handover.

物业服务人公开作出的有利于业主的服务承诺,为物业服务合同的组成部分。

A service commitment made publicly by a property management service provider in favor of the owner is an integral part of the property management service contract.

物业服务合同应当采用书面形式。

A property management service contract shall be in written form.

  第九百三十九条 建设单位依法与物业服务人订立的前期物业服务合同,以及业主委员会与业主大会依法选聘的物业服务人订立的物业服务合同,对业主具有法律约束力。

Article 939 The preliminary property management service contract entered into between a construction employer and a property management service provider according to the law, or the property management service contract entered into between an owners' committee and a property management service provider selected by the owners' meeting according to the law, shall be legally binding on owners.

  第九百四十条 建设单位依法与物业服务人订立的前期物业服务合同约定的服务期限届满前,业主委员会或者业主与新物业服务人订立的物业服务合同生效的,前期物业服务合同终止。

Article 940 Where, prior to the expiration of the service term stipulated in the preliminary property management service contract entered into between a construction employer and a property management service provider according to the law, the property management service contract entered into by the owners' committee or owners and a new property management service provider becomes effective, the preliminary property management service contract shall be terminated.

  第九百四十一条 物业服务人将物业服务区域内的部分专项服务事项委托给专业性服务组织或者其他第三人的,应当就该部分专项服务事项向业主负责。

Article 941 Where a property management service provider delegates some specialized services in the property management service area to a specialized service organization or any other third party, the property management service provider shall be responsible to owners for the specialized services.

物业服务人不得将其应当提供的全部物业服务转委托给第三人,或者将全部物业服务支解后分别转委托给第三人。

A property management service provider shall not delegate to a third party all the property management services it should provide, or delegate all property management services as divided to third parties respectively.

  第九百四十二条 物业服务人应当按照约定和物业的使用性质,妥善维修、养护、清洁、绿化和经营管理物业服务区域内的业主共有部分,维护物业服务区域内的基本秩序,采取合理措施保护业主的人身、财产安全。

Article 942 A property management service provider shall, in accordance with the agreement and the nature of the use of property, properly maintain, service, clean, green, and manage the part of the property management service area held in co-ownership by the owners, maintain the basic order in the property management service area, and take reasonable measures to protect the person and property of owners.

对物业服务区域内违反有关治安、环保、消防等法律法规的行为,物业服务人应当及时采取合理措施制止、向有关行政主管部门报告并协助处理。

For any violation of the relevant laws and regulations on public security, environmental protection, and fire protection, among others, in the property management service area, the property management service provider shall, in a timely manner, take reasonable measures to stop the violation, make a report to the relevant authority, and assist in handling.

  第九百四十三条 物业服务人应当定期将服务的事项、负责人员、质量要求、收费项目、收费标准、履行情况,以及维修资金使用情况、业主共有部分的经营与收益情况等以合理方式向业主公开并向业主大会、业主委员会报告。

Article 943 A property management service provider shall regularly disclose to owners and report to the owners' meeting and the owners' committee on services, responsible personnel, quality requirements, chargeable items, fee rates, performance, the use of maintenance funds, and the management and income of the part held in co-ownership by owners, among others, in a reasonable manner.

  第九百四十四条 业主应当按照约定向物业服务人支付物业费。物业服务人已经按照约定和有关规定提供服务的,业主不得以未接受或者无需接受相关物业服务为由拒绝支付物业费。

Article 944 An owner shall pay a management fee to the property management service provider as agreed. If the property management service provider has provided services in accordance with the agreement and relevant provisions, the owner shall not refuse to pay the management fee on the grounds that it has not accepted or need not accept relevant property management services.

业主违反约定逾期不支付物业费的,物业服务人可以催告其在合理期限内支付;合理期限届满仍不支付的,物业服务人可以提起诉讼或者申请仲裁。

If the owner fails to pay the management fee overdue in breach of the agreement, the property management service provider may demand its payment within a reasonable time limit; and if no payment is made within the reasonable time limit, the property management service provider may institute an action or apply for arbitration.

物业服务人不得采取停止供电、供水、供热、供燃气等方式催交物业费。

The property management service provider may not collect the management fee by shutting off power, water, heat, or gas supply or any other means.

  第九百四十五条 业主装饰装修房屋的,应当事先告知物业服务人,遵守物业服务人提示的合理注意事项,并配合其进行必要的现场检查。

Article 945 When an owner remodels a property, he or she shall notify the property management service provider in advance, follow the reasonable matters to note given by the property management service provider, and cooperate with it in necessary on-site inspection.

业主转让、出租物业专有部分、设立居住权或者依法改变共有部分用途的,应当及时将相关情况告知物业服务人。

If an owner transfers or leases the part of the property held in exclusive ownership, creates a right of habitation, or changes the use of the part held in co-ownership in accordance with the law, he or she shall, in a timely manner, inform the property management service provider of the relevant circumstances.

  第九百四十六条 业主依照法定程序共同决定解聘物业服务人的,可以解除物业服务合同。决定解聘的,应当提前六十日书面通知物业服务人,但是合同对通知期限另有约定的除外。

Article 946 Where owners jointly decide to expel the property management service provider in accordance with legal procedures, the property management service contract may be rescinded. In such a case, the property management service provider shall be notified in writing 60 days in advance, unless otherwise stipulated by contract.

依据前款规定解除合同造成物业服务人损失的,除不可归责于业主的事由外,业主应当赔偿损失。

If the rescission of the contract under the preceding paragraph causes loss to the property management service provider, the owners shall make compensation for the loss, except for reasons not attributable to the owners.

  第九百四十七条 物业服务期限届满前,业主依法共同决定续聘的,应当与原物业服务人在合同期限届满前续订物业服务合同。

Article 947 Where owners jointly decide in favor of further employment before the expiration of the term of property management services, they shall renew the property management service contract with the original property management service provider before the expiration of the contractual term.

物业服务期限届满前,物业服务人不同意续聘的,应当在合同期限届满前九十日书面通知业主或者业主委员会,但是合同对通知期限另有约定的除外。

If the property management service provider does not consent to further employment before the expiration of the term of property management services, the owners or the owners' committee shall be notified in writing 90 days before the expiration of the contractual term, unless otherwise stipulated by contract.

  第九百四十八条 物业服务期限届满后,业主没有依法作出续聘或者另聘物业服务人的决定,物业服务人继续提供物业服务的,原物业服务合同继续有效,但是服务期限为不定期。

Article 948 Where, after the expiration of the term of property management services, owners fail to make a decision in favor of further employment or of the employment of another property management service provider according to the law, and the property management service provider continues to provide property management services, the original property management service contract continues to be with effect, but with an indeterminate term.

当事人可以随时解除不定期物业服务合同,但是应当提前六十日书面通知对方。

Either party may rescind the indeterminate-term property management service contract at any time, but shall notify the other party in writing 60 days in advance.

  第九百四十九条 物业服务合同终止的,原物业服务人应当在约定期限或者合理期限内退出物业服务区域,将物业服务用房、相关设施、物业服务所必需的相关资料等交还给业主委员会、决定自行管理的业主或者其指定的人,配合新物业服务人做好交接工作,并如实告知物业的使用和管理状况。

Article 949 Where the property management service contract is terminated, the original property management service provider shall vacate the property management service area within an agreed or reasonable time limit, surrender the property management service premises, related facilities, and relevant information necessary for property management services, among others, to the owners' committee, owners who decide to exercise management themselves, or the person designated by them, cooperate with the new property management service provider in effectively conducting handover work, and truthfully state the use and management status of property.

原物业服务人违反前款规定的,不得请求业主支付物业服务合同终止后的物业费;造成业主损失的,应当赔偿损失。

If the original property management service provider violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, he or she shall not request the owners to pay the management fee after the termination of the property management service contract; and if loss is caused to the owners, he or she shall make compensation for the loss.

  第九百五十条 物业服务合同终止后,在业主或者业主大会选聘的新物业服务人或者决定自行管理的业主接管之前,原物业服务人应当继续处理物业服务事项,并可以请求业主支付该期间的物业费。

Article 950 Between the termination of a property management service contract and the handover to the new property management service provider selected by owners or the owners' meeting or to the owners who decide to exercise management themselves, the original property management service provider shall continue to provide property management services, and may request the owners to pay the management fee for the period.

第二十五章 行纪合同

Chapter XXV Commission Agent Contracts

  第九百五十一条 行纪合同是行纪人以自己的名义为委托人从事贸易活动,委托人支付报酬的合同。

Article 951 A commission agent contract is a contract whereby the commission agent conducts trading activities in its own name for the principal, and the principal pays the remuneration.

  第九百五十二条 行纪人处理委托事务支出的费用,由行纪人负担,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 952 The expenses incurred by the commission agent in the course of handling the commissioned affair shall be borne by the commission agent, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

  第九百五十三条 行纪人占有委托物的,应当妥善保管委托物。

Article 953 Where the commission agent is in possession of the entrusted item, it shall keep the entrusted item with due care.

  第九百五十四条 委托物交付给行纪人时有瑕疵或者容易腐烂、变质的,经委托人同意,行纪人可以处分该物;不能与委托人及时取得联系的,行纪人可以合理处分。

Article 954 Where an entrusted item is defective, perishable or susceptible to deterioration at the time it was delivered to the commission agent, upon consent by the principal, the commission agent may dispose of the item; where it is unable to contact the principal in time, it may dispose of the entrusted item in a reasonable manner.

  第九百五十五条 行纪人低于委托人指定的价格卖出或者高于委托人指定的价格买入的,应当经委托人同意;未经委托人同意,行纪人补偿其差额的,该买卖对委托人发生效力。

Article 955 Where the commission agent is to sell the entrusted item below, or buy the entrusted item above, the price designated by the principal, it shall obtain consent from the principal. If such sale is effected without consent by the principal, and the commission agent makes up the deficiency on its own, it is binding on the principal.

行纪人高于委托人指定的价格卖出或者低于委托人指定的价格买入的,可以按照约定增加报酬;没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,该利益属于委托人。

Where the commission agent sells the entrusted item above, or purchases the entrusted item below, the price designated by the principal, the remuneration may be increased in accordance with the contract; and where such matter is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 510 of this Code, the benefit belongs to the principal.

委托人对价格有特别指示的,行纪人不得违背该指示卖出或者买入。

Where the principal gives special pricing instruction, the commission agent may not make any sale or purchase in contravention thereof.

  第九百五十六条 行纪人卖出或者买入具有市场定价的商品,除委托人有相反的意思表示外,行纪人自己可以作为买受人或者出卖人。

Article 956 Where the commission agent is to sell or purchase a commodity the price of which is fixed by the market, the commission agent may act as the purchaser or seller itself, unless the principal expresses otherwise.

行纪人有前款规定情形的,仍然可以请求委托人支付报酬。

Where the commission agent is under the situation prescribed in the preceding paragraph, it may still request payment of remuneration from the principal.

  第九百五十七条 行纪人按照约定买入委托物,委托人应当及时受领。经行纪人催告,委托人无正当理由拒绝受领的,行纪人依法可以提存委托物。

Article 957 Once the commission agent purchases the entrusted item in accordance with the contract, the principal shall, in a timely manner, take delivery. Where after receiving demand from the commission agent, the principal refuses to take delivery without cause, the commission agent may tender and deposit the entrusted item in accordance with the law.

委托物不能卖出或者委托人撤回出卖,经行纪人催告,委托人不取回或者不处分该物的,行纪人依法可以提存委托物。

Where the entrusted item fails to be sold or the principal withdraws it from sale, the commission agent may tender and deposit the entrusted item according to the law if the principal fails to claim or dispose of it after receiving such demand from commission agent.

  第九百五十八条 行纪人与第三人订立合同的,行纪人对该合同直接享有权利、承担义务。

Article 958 Where the commission agent enters into a contract with a third party, it directly enjoys the rights and assumes the obligations thereunder.

第三人不履行义务致使委托人受到损害的,行纪人应当承担赔偿责任,但是行纪人与委托人另有约定的除外。

Where the third party fails to perform its obligations, thereby causing damage to the principal, the commission agent shall be liable for compensation, except as otherwise agreed upon by the commission agent and the principal.

  第九百五十九条 行纪人完成或者部分完成委托事务的,委托人应当向其支付相应的报酬。委托人逾期不支付报酬的,行纪人对委托物享有留置权,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 959 Where the commission agent has completed the entrusted matter or has partially completed the entrusted matter, the principal shall pay the appropriate remuneration thereto. Where the principal fails to pay the remuneration within the prescribed period, the commission agent is entitled to lien on the entrusted item, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

  第九百六十条 本章没有规定的,参照适用委托合同的有关规定。

Article 960 Where this Chapter is silent, the provisions on contracts of mandate shall apply mutatis mutandis.

第二十六章 中介合同

Chapter XXVI Intermediary Contracts

  第九百六十一条 中介合同是中介人向委托人报告订立合同的机会或者提供订立合同的媒介服务,委托人支付报酬的合同。

Article 961 An intermediary contract is a contract whereby the intermediary presents to the client an opportunity for entering into a contract or provides the client with intermediary services in connection with the conclusion thereof, and the client pays the remuneration.

  第九百六十二条 中介人应当就有关订立合同的事项向委托人如实报告。

Article 962 The intermediary shall faithfully report to the client on matters concerning contracting.

中介人故意隐瞒与订立合同有关的重要事实或者提供虚假情况,损害委托人利益的,不得请求支付报酬并应当承担赔偿责任。

Where the intermediary intentionally conceals any material fact or provided false information on contracting, thereby harming the client's interests, it may not request payment of any remuneration and shall be liable for compensation.

  第九百六十三条 中介人促成合同成立的,委托人应当按照约定支付报酬。对中介人的报酬没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,根据中介人的劳务合理确定。因中介人提供订立合同的媒介服务而促成合同成立的,由该合同的当事人平均负担中介人的报酬。

Article 963 Once the intermediary facilitates the formation of the proposed contract, the client shall pay the remuneration in accordance with the intermediary contract. Where remuneration to the intermediary is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 510 of this Code, it shall be reasonably fixed in light of the amount of labor expended by the broker. Where the intermediary facilitates the formation of a contract by providing intermediary services in connection with contracting, the remuneration paid to the intermediary shall be equally borne by parties thereto.

中介人促成合同成立的,中介活动的费用,由中介人负担。

Where the intermediary facilitates the formation of the proposed contract, the intermediary expenses shall be borne by itself.

  第九百六十四条 中介人未促成合同成立的,不得请求支付报酬;但是,可以按照约定请求委托人支付从事中介活动支出的必要费用。

Article 964 Where the intermediary fails to facilitate the formation of a contract, it may not request payment of remuneration, provided that it may request the client to reimburse the necessary expenses incurred as agreed.

  第九百六十五条 委托人在接受中介人的服务后,利用中介人提供的交易机会或者媒介服务,绕开中介人直接订立合同的,应当向中介人支付报酬。

Article 965 Where a client uses the trading opportunity or intermediary services provided by the intermediary to bypass the intermediary and directly contract after accepting the services from the intermediary, the client shall pay remuneration to the intermediary.

  第九百六十六条 本章没有规定的,参照适用委托合同的有关规定。

Article 966 Where this Chapter is silent, the provisions on contracts of mandate shall apply mutatis mutandis.

第二十七章 合伙合同

Chapter XXVII Contracts of Partnership

  第九百六十七条 合伙合同是两个以上合伙人为了共同的事业目的,订立的共享利益、共担风险的协议。

Article 967 A contract of partnership is an agreement between not less than two partners to share benefits at mutual risk for a joint enterprise.

  第九百六十八条 合伙人应当按照约定的出资方式、数额和缴付期限,履行出资义务。

Article 968 A partner shall perform its obligation to contribute capital in accordance with the agreed capital contribution method, amount, and time limit for payment.

  第九百六十九条 合伙人的出资、因合伙事务依法取得的收益和其他财产,属于合伙财产。

Article 969 The capital contributions made by partners and the proceeds and other property acquired in accordance with the law because of partnership business are partnership property.

合伙合同终止前,合伙人不得请求分割合伙财产。

A partner may not request the division of partnership property until the termination of the contract of partnership.

  第九百七十条 合伙人就合伙事务作出决定的,除合伙合同另有约定外,应当经全体合伙人一致同意。

Article 970 A partner shall make a decision on partnership business with the unanimous consent of all the partners, unless otherwise agreed in the contract of partnership.

合伙事务由全体合伙人共同执行。按照合伙合同的约定或者全体合伙人的决定,可以委托一个或者数个合伙人执行合伙事务;其他合伙人不再执行合伙事务,但是有权监督执行情况。

Partnership business shall be jointly managed by all partners. As agreed in the contract of partnership or decided by all partners, one or more partners may be mandated to manage partnership business; and the other partners shall cease to manage partnership business, but have the right to supervise the management.

合伙人分别执行合伙事务的,执行事务合伙人可以对其他合伙人执行的事务提出异议;提出异议后,其他合伙人应当暂停该项事务的执行。

If partners manage partnership business separately, the managing partner may raise objections to the business managed by other partners, in which case, the other partners shall suspend the management of the business.

  第九百七十一条 合伙人不得因执行合伙事务而请求支付报酬,但是合伙合同另有约定的除外。

Article 971 A partner may not request remuneration for management of partnership business, except as otherwise stipulated in the contract of partnership.

  第九百七十二条 合伙的利润分配和亏损分担,按照合伙合同的约定办理;合伙合同没有约定或者约定不明确的,由合伙人协商决定;协商不成的,由合伙人按照实缴出资比例分配、分担;无法确定出资比例的,由合伙人平均分配、分担。

Article 972 The allocation of the profits and sharing of losses of a partnership shall be governed by the contract of partnership; if the contract of partnership is silent or not clear, the partners shall negotiate a decision; if the negotiation fails, the partners shall receive allocations and shares in proportion to the paid-in capital; and if the proportions of paid-in capital cannot be determined, the partners shall receive allocations and shares equally.

  第九百七十三条 合伙人对合伙债务承担连带责任。清偿合伙债务超过自己应当承担份额的合伙人,有权向其他合伙人追偿。

Article 973 Partners shall be jointly and severally liable for partnership obligations. A partner who performs a partnership obligation in excess of its share shall be entitled to reimbursement from the other partners.

  第九百七十四条 除合伙合同另有约定外,合伙人向合伙人以外的人转让其全部或者部分财产份额的,须经其他合伙人一致同意。

Article 974 Unless the contract of partnership provides otherwise, a partner shall transfer all or part of its share of property to a person other than a partner with the unanimous consent of the other partners.

  第九百七十五条 合伙人的债权人不得代位行使合伙人依照本章规定和合伙合同享有的权利,但是合伙人享有的利益分配请求权除外。

Article 975 Any creditor of a partner shall not exercise any right of the partner under this Chapter and the contract of partnership in the place of the partner, unless the partner has a claim for allocation of benefits.

  第九百七十六条 合伙人对合伙期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依据本法第五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,视为不定期合伙。

Article 976 Where partners fail to agree or fail to clearly agree on the term of the partnership, and the term cannot be determined according to the provisions of Article 510 of this Code, the partnership shall be treated as being with an indeterminate term.

合伙期限届满,合伙人继续执行合伙事务,其他合伙人没有提出异议的,原合伙合同继续有效,但是合伙期限为不定期。

If a partner continues to manage partnership business at the expiration of the term of the partnership, and the other partners fail to raise any objection, the original contract of partnership shall continue to be with effect, but with an indeterminate term.

合伙人可以随时解除不定期合伙合同,但是应当在合理期限之前通知其他合伙人。

A partner may rescind a contract of partnership with an indeterminate term at any time, but shall give a reasonable notice to the other partners.

  第九百七十七条 合伙人死亡、丧失民事行为能力或者终止的,合伙合同终止;但是,合伙合同另有约定或者根据合伙事务的性质不宜终止的除外。

Article 977 Where a partner is deceased, incapacitated, or terminated, the contract of partnership is terminated, unless the contract of partnership otherwise stipulates, or the termination is inappropriate based on the nature of partnership business.

  第九百七十八条 合伙合同终止后,合伙财产在支付因终止而产生的费用以及清偿合伙债务后有剩余的,依据本法第九百七十二条的规定进行分配。

Article 978 When a contract of partnership terminates, the remainder of partnership property, if any, after the payment of the expenses incurred as a result of the termination and the performance of partnership obligations shall be allocated in accordance with the provisions of Article 972 of this Code.

第三分编 准合同

Title Three Quasi-contracts

第二十八章 无因管理

Chapter XXVIII Management of the Business of Another

  第九百七十九条 管理人没有法定的或者约定的义务,为避免他人利益受损失而管理他人事务的,可以请求受益人偿还因管理事务而支出的必要费用;管理人因管理事务受到损失的,可以请求受益人给予适当补偿。

Article 979 Where a manager, under no statutory or agreed obligation, manages the business of another in order to avoid the damage to the interests of another, the manager may request the beneficiary to make reimbursement for the necessary expenses of the management of the business; and if the manager sustains losses because of the management of the business, the manager may request the beneficiary to make appropriate compensation.

管理事务不符合受益人真实意思的,管理人不享有前款规定的权利;但是,受益人的真实意思违反法律或者违背公序良俗的除外。

If the management of the business is contrary to the true will of the beneficiary, the manager has no rights under the preceding paragraph, unless the true will of the beneficiary violates the law, or is contrary to public order and good morals.

  第九百八十条 管理人管理事务不属于前条规定的情形,但是受益人享有管理利益的,受益人应当在其获得的利益范围内向管理人承担前条第一款规定的义务。

Article 980 Where the management of business by the manager is not the circumstances under the preceding article, but the beneficiary has the benefit of the management, the beneficiary shall be subject to the obligation under paragraph 1, the preceding article towards the manager to the extent of the benefit it gains.

  第九百八十一条 管理人管理他人事务,应当采取有利于受益人的方法。中断管理对受益人不利的,无正当理由不得中断。

Article 981 A manager shall manage the business of another in a manner favorable to the beneficiary. If the interruption of management is to put the beneficiary at a disadvantage, the management may not be interrupted without justification.

  第九百八十二条 管理人管理他人事务,能够通知受益人的,应当及时通知受益人。管理的事务不需要紧急处理的,应当等待受益人的指示。

Article 982 Where the manager of the business of another is able to do so, the manager shall notify the beneficiary in a timely manner. If the business under management need not be handled urgently, the instructions of the beneficiary shall be awaited.

  第九百八十三条 管理结束后,管理人应当向受益人报告管理事务的情况。管理人管理事务取得的财产,应当及时转交给受益人。

Article 983 After management, a manager shall report the management of business to the beneficiary. The property acquired by the manager in the management of business shall be surrendered to the beneficiary in a timely manner.

  第九百八十四条 管理人管理事务经受益人事后追认的,从管理事务开始时起,适用委托合同的有关规定,但是管理人另有意思表示的除外。

Article 984 Where the management of business by a manager is subsequently ratified by the beneficiary, the provisions on contracts of mandate shall apply from the commencement of the management of business, unless the manager declares will otherwise.

第二十九章 不当得利

Chapter XXIX Unjust Enrichment

  第九百八十五条 得利人没有法律根据取得不当利益的,受损失的人可以请求得利人返还取得的利益,但是有下列情形之一的除外:

Article 985 Where a person is enriched without a legal basis, the person impoverished may request the person enriched to make restitution of the enrichment, except under any of the following circumstances:

(一)为履行道德义务进行的给付;

(1) Payment made for the performance of a moral obligation.

(二)债务到期之前的清偿;

(2) Payment of an obligation not due.

(三)明知无给付义务而进行的债务清偿。

(3) Payment of an obligation knowing that there is no obligation to pay.

  第九百八十六条 得利人不知道且不应当知道取得的利益没有法律根据,取得的利益已经不存在的,不承担返还该利益的义务。

Article 986 Unless a person enriched knows or should have known that the enrichment is without a legal basis, and the enrichment exists, the person shall be under no obligation to make restitution of the enrichment.

  第九百八十七条 得利人知道或者应当知道取得的利益没有法律根据的,受损失的人可以请求得利人返还其取得的利益并依法赔偿损失。

Article 987 Where a person enriched knows or should have known that the enrichment is without a legal basis, the person impoverished may request the person enriched to make restitution of the enrichment and make compensation for the losses in accordance with the law.

  第九百八十八条 得利人已经将取得的利益无偿转让给第三人的,受损失的人可以请求第三人在相应范围内承担返还义务。

Article 988 Where a person enriched has transferred the enrichment to a third party gratuitously, the person impoverished may request the third party to assume the obligation to make restitution to the corresponding extent.

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